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Types of Matter

5th grade Physical Science
by

Tom Klus

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of Types of Matter

Types of Matter Chapter 7 What is Matter? Volume Elements Classifying Elements Compounds Space an object takes up Mass Matter Amount of matter (stuff) in an object Anything with volume and mass Weight the pull of gravity on an object http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/ States of Matter 3 Forms Solids Liquids Gases Solid, liquid, gas - Don't change shape easily - Molecules packed tightly together in arrays - Can't flow past each other - Take shape of container - Volume stays the same - Molecules farther apart, can move past each other Density - How tightly matter is packed in an object - Determines if an object will float in a liquid States of Matter Change Physical Change Melting Point Vaporization - Evaporation - Boiling Point Condensing Point Freezing Point - Move from one state to another - Look, act, feel different, molecule same - Temperature where solid changes to liquid - Water 32 degrees F Ice (solid) to liquid Liquid to gas Fastest particles on liquid surface escape into air - Liquid rapidly changes to gas - Water 212 degrees F
liquid to gas - Gases cool, slow down, come closer - Water 212 degrees F
gas to liquid - Liquid to solid - Water 32 degrees F
Same as melting point Sublimation Straight from solid to gas
Dry ice - Molecules move rapidly, very far apart - fill space available - invisible Properties of Matter What is an Element? The simplest kind of substance Cannot be broken into anything simpler Made of atoms
Atom - smallest particle that has properties of the element Over 100 known elements
each has a symbol
one capital letter "O" for Oxygen
Or capital letter followed by a lower case letter "Zn" for Zinc Most Common Elements Crust Water Air (Atmosphere) Living Things Eight make 98% 46% Oxygen, 28% silicon , Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, Other 96% Oxygen and Hydrogen 3% Chlorine and Sodium (salt) 99% Nitrogen and Oxygen Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen make up over 90% Over 60% Water What are Atoms
and Molecules? Atoms made of: Protons (+ charge) and Neutrons (no charge) in Nucleus (center) Electrons (- charge) orbit the nucleus Atomic Number is number of protons in nucleus Atomic Mass is sum of protons and neutrons Molecule made of more than one atom joined together Properties of Elements Metals - about 75% of elements Conduct heat, electricity Can be bent or flattened Usually solid at room temperature Nonmetals - 17 Do Not conduct heat, electricity Solid nonmetals break, not bend Most are gases Metalloids Conduct heat, electricity, but not as well as metals http://www.periodicvideos.com/ Periodic Table created by Dmitri Mendeleev Rows/columns of increasing atomic number Metals, nonmetals, metalloids grouped together Columns have families with similar properties Mixtures and Solutions What is a mixture? a physical combination of 2 or more substances that does NOT form new substances Types of Mixtures Heterogeneous - Particles big enough to see Homogeneous - Particles too small to see
Looks same throughout Suspension - Particles separate within a few hours Solution - one substance dissolves into another. All solutions are homogeneous More on Solutions Parts Solvent - Part that does the dissolving Solute - gets dissolved Solubility - point at which the solvent becomes "full" and will no longer dissolve any more solute Separating Mixtures Filtration - Separate particles of different sizes Density - pour mixture in water
lower density particles float, others
sink Heat - in a solid, liquid solution, add heat to evaporate the liquid, leaving solid What changes produce new substances? Compound - created when 2 or more elements or substances combine - H 2 O Chemical Change - results in a new substance that is different than the original substances
Hydrogen - extremely flammable
Oxygen - needed for fire to burn
H O Water to put fires out!! 2 Naming Compounds Chemical Formula - Symbols that show what elements have combined to form a particular compound H 2 O (Hydrogen) (Oxygen) (element) (element) (subscript) tells how many atoms of the
element are used 2 Hydrogen atoms + 1 Oxygen
make 1 water molecule Identifying Compounds Unique properties - Some physical; Some chemical Physical Properties - Density, freezing and boiling points, color Chemical Properties - Can't observe until a chemical change takes place (color change, bubbles) Spectrometer - identifies compounds and elements based on the colors they give off - each compound gives off own set of
colors http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/chemical_material_behaviour/compounds_mixtures/activity/ Click the link below for a short animation
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