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Mass Media: From the Printing Press to the Pocket PC
Transcript of Mass Media: From the Printing Press to the Pocket PC
press that would be used through most of the
1800s. Movable type had existed in China as early
as 1040, but Gutenberg's improvements made
printing cheap and efficient. In a world where only handwritten
texts were available, it might take
12 years to entirely transcribe one
copy of the Bible. Gutenberg printed
180 bibles in five years! From the Gutenberg Bible,
Harry Ransom Center,
University of Texas at Austin With the printing press, literature and ideas could be mass-produced, but without an audience of readers and writers, how could the ideas of the Renaissance be spread? In the American colonies, many children had to work in farms and
manufacturing. For the most part, education was reserved for families
who could afford to have children in schools instead of at work. One answer to that question: Education! In both Britain and the American colonies, public education began to spread in the middle of the 1600s. In Britain, many schools combined basic education with vocational education. More schools brought more readers. Newspapers and magazines started to spread in the late 17th century—and with the first “penny press” newspaper, they became
major form of media! the With daily and weekly magazines filled with stories and images, the general public became more aware of events occurring locally, nationally, and even globally. Antique printing press from 1811.
Munich, Germany. First Sunday School in New England. From Beverly Public Library, Massachusetts The Old School, Crickhowell.
A British public school built in 1870 With the sudden demand for constant information, media providers needed ways to receive and transmit that information. Samuel Morse patented the telegraph in 1837 and sent his first message in 1838. 1904 sketch of telegraph by Otto Lueger,
from Lexikon der gesamten Technik. Morse’s telegraph and its automated descendants remained in commercial use until as late as 1971, a long life for any piece of technology, but it couldn’t keep up with e-mail. The first photograph was taken in 1826. By 1897, newspapers could reproduce photographs without slowing the presses down, and in 1921 it became possible to send photos by telegraph. First permanent photograph, “View from the Window at Le Gras," Joseph Nicéphore Niépce By the late 1800s, text and photographs could be sent around the world. But how about sounds and moving images? Four inventions helped the world enter the age of mass entertainment. Phonograph: Thomas Edison, 1877 Also called a gramophone, the phonograph is an early record player. The first one stored sounds in grooves carved on wax-coated paper. Telephone: Alexander Graham Bell, 1876 It’s hard to say who invented the telephone, but Alexander Graham Bell got the patent for it in 1876. The next year, telephone switchboards were patented. Actor portraying Alexander Graham Bell in a 1926 AT&T promotional film. Wikimedia Commons. Radio: 1886-1895 The radio was the big sound in mass media from 1890 to the late 1940s. The University of Texas built Texas’s first radio station, but the first-ever football game broadcast was from Station 5XB at Texas A&M University in 1921! Television: Late 1920s Television's first broadcast was in 1926, and TV's been constantly improved ever since. Television may be the first thing that comes to mind when you think of “mass media.” First station broadcasting daily: W2XBS in New York, March 1929
First television network: NBC, from New York to Philadelphia, 1944
Broadcasting goes color: CBS, 1951
Subscription cable becomes available: 1949, and HBO broadcasts its first movie in 1972 The first microprocessors and integrated circuits launched the modern computer age in the mid-1960s. The Apollo lunar spacecrafts took the new technology into space and to the moon. Apollo 1024 bit memory module The first home computers were sold in 1977. By 1982, the price for a home computer was an affordable $530, and about 621,000 computers were in homes in the United States. Home computers became faster, friendlier, and more accessible—but not always cheaper. The Apple
Macintosh was released in 1984, with a price tag of
$2495 (over $5000 today).
Microsoft Windows booted up in 1985. Television reigned as the king of mass media for years—but does TV still wear the crown? A worldwide survey in 2007 indicates a growing number of media consumers spent more time on
the Internet than in front of the TV set—a
change kicked off by the
World Wide Web (WWW). The Internet started as a military and university network
in 1969—but the World Wide Web made it clickable. Instead of using unfriendly software and expensive subscription sites, browsers explored the Internet with their mouses—and
writers, researchers, and artists could share their ideas
almost as easily. “The WorldWideWeb (WWW) project aims to allow all links to be made to any information anywhere . . . . The WWW project was started to allow [physicists] to share data, news, and documentation. We are very interested in spreading the web to other areas . . . Collaborators Welcome!” –Tim Berners-Lee, 1991 World Wide Web logo, Robert Cailliau Invented: 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee, in collaboration with Robert Cailliau
First graphical web browsing software: Mosaic, November 1992
Website #1,000: 1993
Website #255,000,000: 2011
Google’s first search: March, 1998
“Wikipedia.Org” domain name created: January, 2001
YouTube’s first video: April, 2005 Even if it was global, the Internet was still tied to a big desktop computer—at least at first. 1972 Xerox executive Alan Kay proposes the “Dynabook,” a personal, portable computer. A prototype is produced in 1973. 1973 Dr. Martin Cooper, a Motorola employee, invents the first mobile phone. It weighs 2.5 pounds! Japan launches the first commercial cellular network in 1979. Dr. Cooper at 2007 e21 computer conference 2001 The Kyocera 6035 smartphone gives its users access to the World Wide Web on a pocket-sized device. 2007-2008 Popular smartphones begin to approach the functionality of desktop computers. Over 100,000 years, communication technology seems to have
drawn a circle—from conversations around the campfire to
conversations around the world. A pocket-sized device can help you read and write, broadcast and record, watch and listen. Herbert Marshall McLuhan, who coined the phrase “Global Village,” also said “The Medium is the Message.” The tools we use to communicate shape the messages we share. And the tools we have today can let anyone send a message across the world with a cell phone. With modern communication technology, anyone
with a computer and a smartphone camera can
be a journalist or filmmaker. The best-selling
book in the world might sell 200 million copies
over 50 or 100 years, and the movie
sold over 82 million tickets—but on
YouTube, a minute-long family video has
almost 400,000,000 views! How’s that for
a global village? Avatar 1.“Printer in 1598” Woodcut of an early European printing press from 1598¬¬¬. Wikimedia commons.
2.Image from Gutenberg Bible, The University of Texas at Austin’s Harry Ransom Center. Wikimedia Commons.
3.“Handtiegelpresse von 1811” Antique printing press from 1811, Photographed in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany. Wikimedia Commons.
4.“Arts Alive, The Old School, Crickhowell” A British public school built in 1870. John Grayson, www.geograph.org.uk
5.First Sunday School in New England, Beverly Public Library, MA. Flickr.
6."John Bull's Neutrality - The Guardian of Civilization in Full Play" Published in Harper’s Weekly in 1862, by John McLenan. Wikimedia Commons.
7.The New-England Courant, 1721. Wikimedia Commons.
8.“Nibs Café/Gallery show 4” David Sifry, Wikimedia Commons
9.Samuel Morse telegraph, Wikimedia Commons. Image released under GFDL with author’s permission
10.“L-Telegraph1”: 1904 sketch of telegraph by Otto Lueger, from Lexikon der gesamten Technik. Wikimedia Commons.
11.“View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce.” Wikimedia Commons.
12.RCA Indian Head Test Card ca. 1940. Wikimedia Commons.
13.“Edison’s Phonograph,” cliff1066™, Flickr
14. “Telefunken,” image by Gonzalo Andrés, Flickr
15.Actor portraying Alexander Graham Bell in a 1926 AT&T promotional film. Wikimedia Commons.
16.“Macintosh 128k Transparency,” w:User:Grm wnr, Wikimedia Commons
17.Tandy Corporation TRS-80 model I computer system, Flominator, Wikimedia Commons
18.Apollo 1024 bit memory module, Jonathan H. Ward, Wikimedia Commons
19.World Wide Web logo, Robert Cailliau. Wikimedia Commons
20.IPhone 4S No Shadow, Zach.vega1, Wikimedia Commons
21.Dynabook, Alan Kay, Wikimedia Commons. No challenge intended to the original copyright holder.
22."2007Computex e21Forum-MartinCooper,” Rico Shen, Wikimedia Commons
23.Kyocera 6035, Keith Tyler, Flickr
24.“Tom Wolfe on Marshall McLuhan (part 1),” mateo3470, Flickr Image Credits Apple releases the iPad, the first successful tablet computer. 2010