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Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands & Qing China
Transcript of Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands & Qing China
Qing China Ottoman Decline Causes: Weak rulers
Competition from European goods
Serbian & Greek national uprisings The empire survives, but suffers major shrinkage and loss of power. In 1807, the sultan angered the Janissaries so they killed him.
In 1826, the next sultan tricked the Janissaries into revolting; ambushed and killed them. He introduced Western reforms to diplomacy and the military.
Tanzimat Reforms were put into place in mid 1800s - created western style universities, legal reforms and newspapers. A constitution was introduced in 1876. Ottoman Reforms Young Turks were Western-educated people who were opposed to the sultan.
The sultan had nullified (cancelled out) the constitution and restricted freedom, although some Western-influenced changes continued (military techniques, railways, telegraph lines, education and law)
The Young Turks helped overthrow the sultan in 1908 in a bloodless coup (overthrow). Young Turks Ottoman Society for Union + Progress Into Egypt: the Arab Islamic Heartlands Western Intrusions When Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798 the ruling Mamluks dismissed him as a "donkey boy" who they would simply run off. Instead, the French destroyed them.
When the British defeated Napoleon's forces and he had to retreat in 1801, an officer named Muhammad Ali took over as ruler of Egypt.
Ali put Western reforms into place, but he failed to completely industrialize and modernize Egypt. Ali's descendents, known as khedives, ruled Egypt until 1952. Suez Canal 1869 The completion of the Suez Canel made Egypt one of the most strategic places on earth.
Control of the canal became a focus of the main European powers through the first half of the 20th century.
British and French bankers who helped finance the canal urged their governments to seize control militarily. The British gained the upper hand when a military revolt caused the Egyptian rulers to ask for help in 1882. of Egypt Although they didn't colonize, the British begin to rule Egypt indirectly through the puppet khedives (viceroy to the Ottoman sultan).
The British then helped the Egyptian government put down a religious revolt. Between the military and the economic help, Britain had gained a lot of informal influence in Egypt. British Control The Last Chinese Dynasty In 1644 Ming officials let Manchus from the north beyond the Great Wall to help put down rebellion.
The Manchus keep going into Beijing, take over and establish the Qing Dynasty.
The Manchu rulers continued most Chinese traditions, including Confucianism, examination system and male-dominated society. Commercialism and urban expansion occurred and a new merchant group, the compradors, specialized in import-export trade. Rise and Fall of the Qing Qing Decline Exam system ceased to fill its role - corruption and cheating were rampant.
Public works in rural areas were abandoned.
Thousands died from famine and disease.
Rise in banditry 18th Century - British merchants exported opium to China since the Chinese didn't want any other British goods
Chinese tried to end trade - destroyed warehouses; blockaded ships
This action triggered first Opium War - British annihilated the Chinese Opium Wars 1850s - The Taiping rebellion, led by a Christian claiming to be the brother of Jesus, was wipespread and almost destroyed Qing control.
Boxer rebellion took place in 1901 - aimed to expel foreigners from China
Foreign reinforcements crushed the Boxers Chinese Revolts Rebellion in 1911 led to revolution and Qing rule ended. The boy emperor Puyi was replaced by...
Sun Yat-Sen, who became the first president of the Republic of China
In 1905, Confucian civil service exams were given for the last time, signaling an end to 2,5oo years of a consistent pattern of Chinese civilized life. The End of Dynasties Spheres of Influence U.S. prevented China from being colonized - wanted to make sure it could trade there
European Powers established control over ports