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Transcript of Rome
protected by the Alps (mountains)
surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Legend of Romulus and Remus
Considered to be founded by Romulus. (Myth)
1st ruled by Latins
the Etruscans took over from the North
Built Rome's first walls, introduced alphabet, number system, gladiator games, building techniques like the arch, and helped shape government.
Rome becomes a
type of government where elected officials govern the state
2 social classes:
Controlled all of Roman society
Kept power through the
hey provide support to the plebians and in return the plebians are loyal
Common people; lower class.
Were NOT allowed to participate in government
elected tribunes to protect them against unjust laws.
A political structure
- 300 members
- Controlled public finances and foreign relations
- Advised elected officials
- Citizens voted on laws and elected officials
- Put laws into practice.
- Governed in the name of the Senate and the people.
- Acted as priests.
The Republic Expands
Rome had a strong military
men between 17 and 46 were required to serve in the army
265 BC: Romans defeated the Etruscans and Greeks 265 BC.
Then focused on helping their allies in Sicily against Carthage.
Leads to the Punic Wars.
3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage
First War (264 BC) was fought mostly at sea; Rome built a powerful navy and won.
3rd war 149 BC Rome completely destroyed Carthage, enslaving its entire population and burning the city to the ground.
From Republic to Empire
By the mid-100's BC Rome had no rival anywhere in the Mediterranean
Tension began to grow between social classes of Roman society.
Rome Becomes An Empire
Triumvirate - a ruling body of 3 members
The First Triumvirate -
Julius Caesar (Caesar)
Gnaeus Pompey (Pompey)
and Licinius Crassus (Crassus)
Caesar and Pompey were successful military leaders.
Caesar added Gaul - modern day France - to the empire.
Pompey conquered Syria and parts of Asia Minor.
Crassus was one of the wealthiest men in Rome.
They took over Rome in 60 BC.
Crassus died soon after
Pompey and Caesar faced off in Civil War
Caesar defeats Pompey!!!
BEWARE THE IDES OF MARCH!!!
The Roman people like Caesar
The Senate begins to fear Caesar
A group of Senators kill Caesar on March 15th, 44BC.
The First Triumvirate
The Second Triumvirate
Lepidus is pushed out.
Octavian and Antony agree to rule half of the empire each.
Octavian - West.
Antony - East.
Octavian defeats Antony in Civil War.
Antony and his lover Queen Cleopatra of Egypt commit suicide.
Leaves Octavian to rule Rome by himself.
The Republic is officially DEAD!!!
The Augustan Age
Octavian calls himself "The First Citizen"
Why would he do this?
He created a new political order knowns as the
Senate declares him Augustus "the revered one"
Augustus remained as the head of the state for more than 40 years.
Divided the power between himself and the Senate.
Began programs to bring peace to Gaul and Spain.
Expanded the empire .
Created a police force and firebrigades.
Began a vast building program
"I found Rome built of bricks; I leave her clothed in marble!"
Restored old temples and built new temples.
14AD: After the death of Augustus relatives of Julius Caesar ruled the empire.
They were called the Julio-Claudian Emperors.
Tiberius was a good soldier and efficient ruler.
Caligula was his brutal and insane successor (appointed his horse consul).
Nero was the last Julio-Claudian, committed suicide in AD 68.
The Good Emperors
AD 96: 5 new emperors take control of Rome for almost a century.
Under these emperors the empire grew tremendously.
Roman Governments in order that they occurred.
Pax Romana - Roman Peace
Lasted from 27 BC - AD 180.
Essential traits to the
- The Empire was divided into provinces ruled by governors .
-Brought uniformity to the cities of the Mediterranean.
Strong Legal System:
- Laws were passed by Assemblies, Senate, or the Emperor and applied to ALL citizens in the empire.
-Empire's location around the Mediterranean Sea and an extensive road network (50,000 miles of roads connecting the empire).
The Fall of Rome
--In 200 CE, Rome fell into a series of Civil Wars.
- Increased threat of invasion on both eastern and western frontiers.
-Emperors increased the size of the army putting increased strain on Rome's financial resources and military.
-The empire becomes a military dictatorship.
-The Roman legions became the central power- more loyal to their Generals than the emperor.
- Military needs caused Emperors to raise taxes.
-Rome was no longer expanding
-Emperors minted new coins with copper and lead as well as silver in order to maintain the money supply.
-People began to refuse to accept the currency at its face value. Why?
-Caused inflation-increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money.
Social Unrest and Insecurity
- Civil Wars and invasions led to an increase in robbery and piracy on Roman roads and trade routes.
-Made travel hazardous and caused merchants to fear shipping goods.
-What would this do to the military?
-Huns attacked the Ostrogoths (north of the Black Sea)
-AD 410 the Visigothic King Alaric sacked Rome.
-In the mid-400's AD Attila the Hun attacked Gaul
-Roman army couldn't stop him alone so they joined with the Visigoths and defeated the Huns.
The disappearance of central authority and the creation of smaller kingdoms.
The continuation of the Roman Empire ruled from Constantinople.
The Final 2 Capable Emperors
Took power in 284.
Changed the empire to an absolute monarchy.
Divided the empire in two
Diocletian ruled the East and appointed a co-emperor to rule the West.
Both emperors had an assistant called Caesars.
Continued Diocletians policies of state control over society.
Made Christianity legal within the Roman Empire.
Created the capital city Constantinople in the East near the Bosporus Strait.
Wanted his capital in the East because it was wealthier and better defended than the West.
Regulated every aspect of Roman life; sons had to follow their fathers trade and social position and peasants were premenantly tied to the land they farmed.
Increased the size of the army paying very close attention to the defense of the empire.
Implemented a new tax system that helped raise money and keep the economy from collapsing.
Roman Society and Culture
Lives of the rich and poor differed greatly.
Usually had two homes; a city home and country home (villa).
Spent most of their time focused on politics.
Public officials weren't paid so you had to have money to be able to hold office.
Nearly 1 million people lived in 3 and 4 story apartment buildings.
Buildings were prone to fire
In order to keep the poor from rebelling due to the living conditions, free food and public entertainment became major features of Roman city life.
Science, Architecture, Engineering, Language, and Law
- man-made channels used to bring water to the city.
Sewer system, roads, bridges, amphitheaters.
Language of Rome - Latin
Romance Languages developed out of Latin - French, Italian, Spanish, Romanian, and Portuguese.
Even English gets much of its vocabulary from Latin.
Civil Law - form of law based on a written code of laws.
Before Constantine converted to Christianity and made it legal in Rome, the Romans worshipped many gods
Not only Roman gods, but gods borrowed from other cultures as well.
Christianity developed from Judaism and the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
Romans conquer Judea, but allow the Jews to continue practicing their religion.
Uprising in AD 66-70, Romans sacked Jerusalem and destroyed the Second Temple.
Jesus of Nazareth emerges and begins spreading his message
Gained a small group of disciples or followers while spreading his message
Began to gain popularity alarming local authorities who feared a political uprising.
Jesus was soon arrested, tried, sentenced to death, and crucified.
The Spread of Christianity
Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity in the early 300's.
Said to have had a vision where he saw a cross of light with the words "In this sign, conquer".
313 he passed the Edict of Milan making the practice of Christianity legal within Rome.
His support for Christianity rapidly increased its spread through the Roman Empire.
Christian words to know:
Bishop - a high ranking church official who oversees a group of churches in a particular region or city.
Pope - Head of the Roman Catholic Church
-Germanic tribes had continuously raided the Roman frontier over the centuries.
- Late 300's the Huns began (Central Asian tribe) to march west, they attacked ferociously and very fast.
-Struck terror into Germanic tribes causing them to retreat farther into the Roman Empire.
-Only caused Attila to turn his attention to Rome.
-Before Attila got to Rome Pope Leo I persuaded Attila to leave Italy.
-476 Odoacer overthrew the last Roman emperor; many consider this as the end of the Western Roman Empire.
Senate declares Caesar dictator for life in 44 BC!!
Gave citizenship to people in the provinces.
Gave public lands to veterans.
Events that lead to an Empire: