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nosheen nasir

on 20 May 2014

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Gender roles
Gender roles are both cultural and personal. These roles determine how males and females think, speak, dress and interact within the context of society. Learning plays a role in this process of shaping gender roles. These gender schema are deeply embedded cognitive frameworks regarding what defines masculine and feminine. While various socializing agents—educators, peers, movies, television, music, books, and religion—teach and reinforce gender roles throughout a child's life span, parents probably exert the greatest influence, especially when their children are very young

Kohlberg’s cognitive Gender developmental theory
Kohlberg believed that children's minds develop in set stages broadly related to age.

Kohlberg’s concept of gender constancy comes from Piaget’s ideas about cognitive development. Piaget proposed that children lack internal logic and are unable to distinguish between appearance and reality. Kohlberg related many of these ideas to gender development.
1. Gender Identity(2-3 years)
3. Gender Consistency
1. Gender refers to an individual's anatomical sex, or sexual assignment, and the cultural and social aspects of being male or female.
Gender Schema Theory
• Gender schema theory refers to the theory that children learn about what it means to be male and female from the culture in which they live.

• The gender schema theory was first developed by Sandra Bern in 1981 and later expanded by Carol Martin and Charles Halverson in 1983.

• Gender schema are based on children's interactions and observations of others, their environment, and the culture.

• Children first learn their own gender by ages two or three. As soon as the child figures out what it means to be a male or a female, he or she actively seeks information concerning the appropriate gender roles and traits.

• After the schemas and scripts are developed it is very difficult to change them - if children see information that agrees with their scripts then they will use it as part of their future thinking, but if they see something that does not co-operate with their gender schemas then they may not encode the information at all (resulting in no change).
2. Gender Stability
Gender identity appears to form very early in life and is most likely irreversible by age 4. Genetics, prenatal and postnatal hormones, differences in the brain and the reproductive organs, and socialization all interact to mold a toddler's gender identity.
Gender identity
Gender identity is ultimately derived from
chromosomal makeup and physical appearance, but this derivation of gender identity does not mean that psychosocial influences are missing. Gender socialization, or the process whereby a child learns the norms and roles that society has created for his or her gender, plays a significant role in the establishment of her or his sense of femaleness or maleness.

Children first begin to think about their gender around the age of two
Children know if they are a boy or a girl
They can identify (label) there own sex
They can identify the other sex
Gender is just a label
No more relevant than a name
At this stage children can be fooled by outward appearance - a boy with long hair may be labeled a girl
Children begin to show a preference for playing with children who share their label as they belong to the same group
Gender is recognize as being stable (constant) over time
'I am a boy so I will always be a boy'
They are still very egocentric so may not apply this understanding to other people
They may believe that a female firefighter is actually a man
A four year old child believes a person's sex is determined by the way they behave
Gender is recognised as being stable (constant) over time
'I am a boy so I will always be a boy'
They are still very egocentric so may not apply this understanding to other people
They may believe that a female firefighter is actually a man
A four year old child believes a person's sex is determined by the way they behave
Children have experiences with people of both genders, they think about their experiences, having made sort of mental notes of what males and females do, and adopt behaviors performed by people of their own sex. Children do their own gender typing themselves. They make classifications of themselves and of others as male or female, and organize their behaviors around that classification
girl or boy??
The three stages of Kohlberg's Cognitive-Developmental Theory
video gives you better understanding
Gender differences in language development
Differences in language abilities between the genders have been observed .
 Girls begin to talk sooner and more clearly than boys.
 The average 20-month old girl has twice the vocabulary of the average 20-month old boy.
 Boys are much more likely to be diagnosed with stuttering and handwriting.
 There are no gender differences in vocabulary knowledge, but females tend to have more advanced spelling and grammar skills.

Gender Differences in learing
There are significant differences in the ways girls and boys learn differences
 Women prefer concrete experiences while men prefer abstract concepts
 Women are more socially oriented than men
 Men are more grade-oriented and more competitive than women

Gender Differences in Moral Development

• In many cultures males are expected to be independent, assertive, and competitive while
females are expected to be more passive, sensitive, and supportive
• These kind of beliefs have changed over the years through cultural variation.
• Boys and girls are dressed differently, receive different toys to play with, and sleep in bedrooms that are furnished differently.
• Boys are thought to be stronger and are treated more roughly and played with more actively than girls as early as birth. As children get older, girls are protected more and allowed less autonomy than boys, and girls are not expected to achieve as much in the areas of mathematics and careers as are boys.

Gender Differences in Behavior Development

• The process by which children acquire the values, motives, and behaviors viewed as appropriate for males and females within a culture is called gender typing.
• By observing the activities of women and men in their society, people form gender role beliefs/ expectations.
• Men are considered more aggressive, hold higher status in jobs and considered dominant and assertive while women are considered to be more nurturant and caring.
• Gender roles influence behavior through social and biological processes.
• There are no gender differences in sociability, conformity, achievement, self-esteem between girls and boys.
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