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Chapter Ten, Section Two

Sparta and Athens

Tamara Fellows

on 17 May 2010

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Transcript of Chapter Ten, Section Two

Chapter Ten, Section Two
Athens Vs. Sparta alliance two or more groups who agree
to cooperate with each other
to achieve a common goal an agreement to work together barracks buildings used to house soldiers helots slaves grew the city’s crops couldn’t leave their land built buildings spun and wove cloth feared the Spartan army javelin long piece of thin wood with a pointed end, used as a weapon or thrown in field competitions What was Sparta? was a military city-state that was the center of Greek culture had a severe code of laws to
maintain control of the helots (slaves) most of the slaves came from
Messina after Sparta conquered it What role did Spartan
boys and men have? unhealthy baby boys were taken outside the city and left to die healthy boys were trained from a young age to be soldiers boys left home at age 7 to train to be a soldier men became citizens when they
reached the age of 30 at the age of 30, could participate in the assembly and move back home men had to serve in the army until
they were 60 years of age What was training like for boys? boys had to increase their strength they were given very little so that they could deal with the hardships they would face as soldiers What was army life like for Spartan men? men between the ages of 20 and 30
lived in barracks visited their families on occasion credo:obedience, discipline and
courage above all else What was life like for Spartan women? women owned land women ran the households when
their husbands were gone
(men were usually off to war) had physical training
(running, jumping, wrestling
and throwing) could compete against men
in sporting events How was Sparta ruled? ruled by two kings who
jointly led the army elected officials had more
power than the kings officials ran everyday activities and
handled issues with other city-states What was Athens? Greek city-state people valued physical training,
education, thinking and the arts What was life like for Athenian boys? boys had training (physical and academic) physical training was not as harsh as Spartan training learned how to read, write, count,
play musical instruments and about
Greek history and legend rich boys had tutors and learned
philosophy, geometry, astronomy,
public speaking, etc. poor boys received little education but,
most could read and write poor boys became farmers and grew
food or worked as craftspeople and learned trades What was life like for Athenian men? men joined the army for two years defended the city-state between
the ages of 18-20 older men served in the army when there was a war What was life like for Athenian girls? girls did not receive an education rich girls might have been taught how to read and write by private tutors most girls learned how to weave and sew What was life like for Athenian women? they had few rights they could not be in the government could only leave their homes on special occasions could not buy things or own property could not disobey their husbands or fathers What was the “Golden Age of Athens”? from 500-430 B.C.E. also called the “Golden Age of Pericles” Pericles, a famous speaker was able to influence government voting on various issues Pericles had three goals: 1. strengthen the Athenian democracy 2. build a commercial empire 3. glorify Athens Pericles organized the rebuilding of the Acropolis – a hill where a group of temples had been destroyed by the Persians a time of great writing and learning in Athens Athens became the center of Greek culture and civilization – art, plays, philosophy, architecture and sculpture (see columns – Doric, Ionic, Corinthian) What is philosophy and who were the great Greek philosophers? philosophy is the love of knowledge and wisdom Socrates – great Athenian philosopher (FYI – he was “ugly” and had been a soldier and stonecutter) asked his students questions in order to answer the questions his students were forced to learn and think questioned everything in life, including democracy, patriotism, and religion brought to trial at the age of 70 for “corrupting the youth of Athens” and failing to revere “the gods the state recognizes” found guilty and sentenced to death –
was made to drink slow-acting poison made of hemlock Plato – one of Socrates’ students wrote down the talks between Socrates and his students became a writer, teacher and philosopher founded a school, the Academy which continued for 900 years wrote The Republic – his vision of a perfectly governed society three groups of people workers(farmers and artisans) warriors rulers (philosopher-king) Aristotle – student of Plato at the Academy for 20 years one of the first people to test facts and organize ideas in a logical way scientist and philosopher developed syllogism (a set of logical statements) ♣All people are mortal. ♣Socrates was a person. ♣Therefore, Socrates was mortal. What was the Delian League? Sparta and Athens fought together to win the Persian Wars (Sparta/land – Athens/sea) after the wars (480 B.C.E.) many city-states joined an alliance the alliance was to punish Persia and to protect Greece each city-state gave money to the alliance to pay for defense the money was kept on the island of Delos – called the Delian League Athens was the strongest member of the Delian League because it protected
the islands with its navy Pericles also used money from the Delian League to beautify Athens He convinced the Athenian Assembly, without the Delian League’s approval to vote huge sums of money from the league to buy gold, ivory and marble and also to support artisans to rebuild the Acropolis for 15 years. What was the Peloponnesian League? Sparta and other city-states in southern Greece banded together and formed an alliance known as the Peloponnesian League after the peninsula of Peloponnesus Athens was gaining power and this worried the Peloponnesian League Sparta declared war in order to stop Athens from growing too powerful What was the Peloponnesian War? a war between Athens and Sparta that threatened to tear Greece apart the Spartan army attacked Athens and surrounded the city – when Athens did not surrender the Spartans burned the crops around Athens
Athens had fortified its food by having its navy escort merchant ships to the city the Athenian navy also attacked Sparta’s allies this forced the Spartan army to go and defend other city-states disease spread through Athens during this time and thousands were killed after ten years they called a truce How did Sicily lead to the defeat of Athens? a few years after the truce Athens wanted to expand its empire it sent in its navy and army to attack Sicily the Sicilians and Spartan allies defeated the Athenians and almost completely destroyed their navy the food supply to Athens was cut off in 404 BC the people in the city were starving and surrounded so they surrendered this ended the Peloponnesian War and put Sparta in control What happened after the Peloponnesian War? •Sparta was the most powerful city-state in Greece for about 30 years other city-states began to resent them this led to a period of fighting and war and left Greece weak and open to attack from the outside
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