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Transcript of Philippine Architecture
Meanwhile, the food gatherers who moved from one place to another in their search for food and game, needed a portable shelter. Thus they fashioned the lean-to from a frame made of tree branches and twigs, using leaves and fronds for sidings. A screen resting on the ground protects dwellers from rain and the heat of the sun.
ANCESTORS OF BAHAY NA BATO
Different styles of houses
A second ancestor may have been the native chieftain’s house described by Antonio de Morga in the 17th century, which was elevated, sturdily built of timber, well-furnished, and spacious, having many rooms.
BAHAY NA BATO
The bahay na bato may be described as a house with wooden legs and a stone skirt, a style of construction which makes the house a sure survivor of earthquakes.
In the early years of their settlement in Manila, the Spaniards built churches and houses of wood and bamboo, but these were destroyed by fire.
With the discovery of volcanic tuff quarries in San Pedro, Makati, in the 1580s, the Spaniards began to construct dwellings, churches, and fortifications in stone.
In the 16th century, Spain extended her empire to the Philippines
The Spanish colonizers settled in Cebu in 1565
In 1571 the Spaniards conquered Manila
Strategically located on the shore of a bay and at the mouth of a river, Manila was eminently suitable for defense, administration, and trade.
Spanish Colonial Period
History of Philippine
The earliest shelters of human beings were probably not built by them. It was nature which fashioned hollows on cliffs and mountainsides that offered protection from heat, rain, and wind.
The Mangyan of Mindoro, who are swidden farmers, have two types of houses—the single-family dwelling and the communal house.
Mangyan house is built on a slope, the entrance faces the rise.
THE CORDILLERA HOUSES
Main people: Ifugao
The one-room Ifugao house, known as fale, is a little marvel of construction.
The interior space—enclosed by slanting walls, sloping roof, and ceiling formed by the loft—appears nearly spherical. The dark, windowless chamber suggests a womb.
The Kankanay house is still another variation of the Ifugao prototype.
The roof is higher and wider, thereby providing a spacious loft above the living space.
On the ground level wooden planks are laid to provide additional livable space.
The bamboo roof suggests an inverted boat, and wooden floor joists have the profile of a boat.
As in the Kalinga house, the floor can be rolled up.
The Isneg house is the largest house among the Cordillera houses.
Antonio Sedeño, a Jesuit priest and engineer, trained local workmen in the art of building with stone.
Probably the oldest existing stone building in the Philippines is the San Agustin Church which has survived all earthquakes from the 17th century to the present.
Started during the 19th century
The 19th-century townhouse, called bahay na bato (stone house), was a product of economic and social developments, as well as of architectural evolution.
The lifestyle, aspirations, and even pretensions, of the upper class demanded a new type of dwelling that was spacious, durable, comfortable, impressive, noble, and elegant—the bahay na bato.
BAHAY NA BATO
Nipa huts were the native houses of the indigenous people of the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived.
A nipa hut is an icon of Philippine culture as it represents the Filipino value of bayanihan, which refers to a spirit of communal unity or effort to achieve a particular objective.
Location: All over the Philippines
Characteristics: The native house has traditionally been constructed with bamboo tied together and covered with a thatched roof using nipa/anahaw leaves.
Likes: steep hip roof, post-and-lintel construction, elevated quarters and maximized ventilation are features of the bahay kubo that appear in grand style in the bahay na bato.
combined the native and the foreign styles of building in their two-story houses with wooden posts and beams, stone walls around the ground floor, and timber construction above.
The living quarters are elevated and are reached through an interior stairway.
is a grim entrance hall but, with its abundant space, is the perfect storeroom for just about everything.
Features of Bahay
(upper entrance hall)
Bedrooms flank the sala and nearby is the dining room.
a gallery which protects the rooms from the heat of the sun.
Wide double doors are flung open to join each room to adjacent rooms. With all doors open, the house becomes one big hall.
San Sebastian Church
San Sebastian Church
The only metal church in Asia. Built in 1888-1890. And was finally inaugurated in 1891.
It was designed by Gustave Eiffel's company in France and the steel parts were manufactured in Binche Belgium. Even the windows were imported from Germany, made by the Henri Oidtmann Company.
The symmetrical facade is composed of two towers flanking the main entrance, which is highlighted by a central rosette.
In the transept is placed a octagonal dome, which allows light to enter into the church.
The church is one of the few structures that survived intact to the battle of Manila.
Fort Santiago or Fuerza de Santiago is a defense fortress built for Spanish Conquistador, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi.
The location of Fort Santiago was once the palace and kingdom of Rajah Suliman, chieftain of Manila during the Spanish era.
Located along the southern bank of the Pasig River
Built by the Spaniards during the 16th century
The oldest district in Manila
"Within the Walls"