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Intro to Science

Week 3
by

Elisha Mickle

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of Intro to Science

Sept. 10-14, 2012
Chapter 1 Science
Welcome Back! Sept. 10, 2012

Get Going: Why are laws important in science?

Be in your seat, prepared, and working silently please.
Get Moving Activity

When I read a sentence, you move to either the LAW side or the THEORY side of the room. This is what YOU think the sentence falls under.

Remember: conduct yourselves as young adults.
LAW VS. THEORY
A statement that
describes what
scientists expect to
happen
every time under a particular set of conditions.
Rule of Nature
Observed pattern
(Theory)
Well tested explanation for a wide range of observations of experimental results
Explains the
HOW
and
WHY
something happens
(The way something works)
describes the things that happen
Examples:

Blake failed the test.
(doesn't say why it happens)

Blake didn't study and has been gone.
(explains why)
At times Law comes first and then the explanation of why
Theories do
NOT
become Laws
- they use laws to explain how/why

- The more evidence it gets - it becomes a more supported theory
Law and Theory have the finger/thumb relationship.
- Both are related but have different purposes
- Used together are very powerful
- But a finger can't become a thumb and vice versa
Theories are more useful
Both are open for change and revision but CANNOT become each other.
The Law of Gravity for example.....
Doesn't explain why but it describes what happens.
On a separate piece of paper....

List and explain 3 Laws of Science you already know. If you are having trouble, use your book as a resource.

To be turned in before the end of class
Good Morning/Afternoon Sept. 11, 2012

Get Going: What is the difference between subjective and objective knowledge?

Please find your seat, be prepared, and working silently.

If you OWE me assignments, be sure to work on them. Remember some points are better than NO points!!!
IF you OWE me assignments, papers signed, fees make sure to work on them and get them to me ASAP. Remember SOME points are better than NO points!!! Interim Reports will be handed out on the 17th!
Qual
itative and
Quan
titative Data
(Remember
Quan
tity means #s)
(Remember
Qual
ity means how good something is)
For example....
LAB - Qualitative/Quantitative Candle

If you did
NOT
turn in a safety contract you must look off of your neighbor [ aka you
cant
play with fire today]
Qualitative
Quantitative
Lit Candle
Candle
Compare
5+7=
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Shell Activity
Write a DETAILED description of your sea shell. You must write all the colors, flaws, spots, measurements you can see. This needs to be sooooo descriptive that someone else can locate this shell from a pile of 30 shells. This needs to be all words, not pictures in the writing.
QUICK WRITE - last 5 minutes
Describe what qualitative and quantitative data collecting is and what you learned in class today.

TURN IN TO THE PAPER TRAY
Shell Activity Reflection

1. What quantitative or qualitative data helped you to find the shell? Be specific.

2. What was hard about the description you had? Was there enough descriptive information?

3. Looking at the shell that was described to you.. list any qualitative or quantitative information that was left off.
Deals with descriptions
Data can be observed but not measured
Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc
Think of your 5 senses: smell, taste, touch, smell, hear
Deals with numbers
Data which can be measured
Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, etc
Qualitative data:
texture shows brush strokes of oil paint
smells musty
playful scene at the beach
masterful brush strokes
lots of blue colors
Quantitative data:
picture is 10" x 14"
weighs 8.5 pounds
surface area of painting is 140 sq. in.
cost $300
Example
Qualitative data:
Quantitative data:
sweet aroma
warm to touch
light brown in color
chocolatey taste
20 cookie count
weight 4 pounds
125 F temperature
20 serving ounces
cost $ 6.00
Observations
data that are descriptions of qualities such as shape, color, taste, touch, etc
acquired by using your senses
Two Types:
1. Objective observation
2. Subjective observation
2 Types of Observations
Objective
Subjective
an observation based on
FACT
an observation based on
opinion
Fact - a piece of information that can be strictly defined and proved true.
Opinion - a statement that expresses a belief,
value, or feeling
Science looks like fun today!
Subjective
Kanye West’s songs sound good!
Subjective
The counter-tops in class are black!
Objective
School French fries taste good!
Subjective
The summer was too short!
Subjective
There are sixty seconds in a minute!
Objective
Subjective or Objective???
OBJECTIVE OR SUBJECTIVE???
Which type should be used in science?
Objective observations should be used in science because they are based on facts and the basis of science is to identify the facts!
Data - factual data
2 types:
Qualitative
Quantitative
EVERYONE MUST WEAR GOGGLES - NO HORSEPLAY IN THE LAB!
Good Morning/Afternoon! Sept. 17, 2012

Get Going: Jack has a book, ruler, and a balance. How can Jack find the density of the book with the tools he has?


Reminder: Notecards, 3-prong folder, ALL science papers ready - we will be compiling them today.

Interim Reports go out today. ANY zeroes are able to make up if you do the work and turn it in!
Good Morning/Afternoon! Sept. 12, 2012

Get Going: Why is it important to have a control group with an experimental group in an experiment. Recall the 2 groups of chickens in the Beriberi Case.


Reminder! If you owe me assignments, papers, science material ---->
TURN THEM IN ASAP!
A variable is anything in an experiment that can change or vary.
It is any factor that can effect the outcome of an experiment
There are 3 Main Types!
1. Independent Variable (IV)
a.k.a Manipulated Variable
something that is intentionally changed by the scientist
what is tested
what is manipulated
You can ONLY change 1 variable in an experiment!
2. Dependent Variable (DV)
Something that might be affected by the change in the IV
- what is observed and measured?
- the data collected during the investigation
- a.k.a. Responding Variable
To determine the IV ask yourself these questions:
1. What is being changed?!
Finish the sentence with..
I will change ____________________
Example:
Assume you are testing 5 brands of popcorn to see which one has the most unpopped kernels.
The IV would be the 5 different brands of popcorn.
To determine DV ask yourself:
What will I measure.. observe?
Finish the sentence: I will observe and measure __________________.
Operational Variable

Define exactly how the dependent variable will be measured.
Example:
Assume your DV in an experiment is plant growth.
How will you measure this?! It could be...
height (cm), mass (g), # of leaves, etc
Be specific and include ALL necessary units!
3. Controlled Variable (CV)
a variable that is not changed and kept the same.
also known as constants
NOT the same as "control"!
Any given experiment will have many controlled variables.
To determine a CV ask yourself:
What should not be allowed to change?
Finish this sentence
I will not allow the ____________ to change!
Application:
SpongeBob Clean Pants
SpongeBob noticed that his favorite pants were not as clean as they used to be. his friend Sandy told him that he should try using Clean-O detergent, a new brand of laundry soap she found at Sail-Mart. Spongebob made sure to wash one pair of pants in plain water and another pair in water with the Clean-O detergent. After washing both pairs of pants a total of three times, the pants washed in the Clean-O detergent did not appear to be any cleaner than the pants washed in the plain water.
1. What was the problem SpongeBob wanted to investigate?
2. What is the independent variable?
3. What is the dependent variable?
4. What should SpongeBob's conclusion be?
If a student
chooses to not study
, then they will
earn a poor grade
.

If you
drink Gatorade before a soccer game
, then you will
score more goals
.

If you
increase the mechanical advantage
of a pulley system
used to move an object, then the
input force becomes less
.
Good Morning/Afternoon Sept. 13, 2012
Get Going: List the steps of the Scientific Method and what each one means.
REMEMBER: Interim Reports Go out MONDAY! Any assignments you owe me .. TURN IN ASAP!
What is Density?
Density is the comparison of how much matter there is in a certain amount of space.
Which one is more dense?
Now which one is more dense?
What is density?!
Density =
mass
volume
OR mass volume
:
Units for density: g/mL (liquid)
OR
g/cm (solid)
3
Always
Remember
Units!!!
Why are these the units for density?!
Let's Try Some Together
Frank has a paper clip. It has a mass of 9g
and a volume of 3cm3. What is its density?
Frank also has an eraser. It has a mass of 3g, and a volume of 1cm3. What is its density?
Try These on Your Own
Jack has a rock. The rock has a mass of 6g and a volume of 3mL. What is the density of the rock?
Jill has a box. The box has a mass of 8g and length of 2cm, width 1cm, and a height of 4 cm. What is the density of the rock?
Liquid Layers
If you pour together liquids that don’t mix and have different densities, they will form liquid layers.
The liquid with the
highest density
will be on the
bottom
.
The liquid with the
lowest density
will be on the
top
Which layer has the highest density?
Which layer has the lowest density?
Imagine that the liquids have the following densities:
10g/cm3 3g/cm3.
6g/cm 3.5g/cm3.
Which number would go with which layer?
Liquid Layers
Imagine that the liquids on the right have the following densities:
15g/cm3 10g/cm3
3g/cm3 9g/cm3
7g/cm3 12g/cm3
Match the colors to the correct densities
Try this on Your OWN
REVIEW - to be turned in at the end of class
What is the formula for density?
What happens if you pour together liquids that have different densities?
Will the liquid on the top have the highest or lowest density?
Will the liquid on the bottom have the highest or lowest density?
On a separate piece of paper -- You may use your notes
Good Morning/Afternoon Sept. 14, 2012


Get Going: Read the article and answer the questions
.
There’s an old saying that oil and water don’t mix. But sometimes they do — especially when a chemical called a surfactant brings the two together. Once blended, oil and water become tough to pull apart. Unless, that is, you have a new type of sieve.

Researchers led by Anish Tuteja at the University of Michigan have created a new type of filter that lets water pass through but leaves oil behind. The device could be used to help clean water at treatment plants or mop up oil spills. It’s too soon, however, to know if it will be useful for large disasters, notes Tuteja.

In August, Tuteja’s team reported that a test version of the new filter performed almost perfectly in laboratory tests: It removed 99.9 percent of the oil from an oil-water mix.

Materials scientists like Tuteja specialize in trying to build new materials with useful properties. In the past, other scientists have built filters using a material that lets the oil through but stops the water. Tuteja says those filters need lots of energy to work well. They also quickly gum up with oil and must be cleaned.

Tuteja’s filter does the opposite: It allows water through but blocks the oil. And it doesn’t rely on extra energy to move the mixture through the system. Only gravity, a force that pulls objects toward the center of the Earth, tugs the liquids downward.

The scientists created the new device by dipping a base material — like a mesh or a net — into two chemicals. One of those chemicals loves water; the other repels oil. When a water-oil mixture now hits the filter, water — the heavier of the two liquids — gets pulled through, but oil does not.

The scientists tested their device on mixtures containing water and different types of oil. Each time, the water went through and the oil slid off the side into a different container.

“This is nice work,” Di Gao told Science News. He’s a chemical engineer at the University of Pittsburgh who did not work on the new material. As he explains: “It’s not too hard to make a surface that repels water but likes oil — but to do it the other way is hard.”
Good Morning/Afternoon Sept. 14, 2012

Get Going: Read the article on the bright pink sheet by station # 4 and write a response.
The response should include the 4 power words found at the bottom of the article and what are the advantages and disadvantages of this invention.

When you are done reading return the pink paper where you found it. Get your notecards out for a check!! This is for a homework grade!

IF you have ANY assignments that you owe me.. TURN THEM IN. Interim Reports go out Monday.
Get Quiet
Have a seat
Get Started
Make sure you put the person's name on your paper and the # of shell!!
We will read the article together.

Take notes on a separate piece of paper.
How do we use density?!
Density is a physical property of a substance.
We can identify an unknown substance by its density.

Review: What are physical properties?
Hardness, texture, color, etc
Anything you can observe without changing it into another substance.
Good Morning/Afternoon
Remember the computer conduct rules
We will put the laptops up in an orderly fashion.
Today is a class scape day.
When you are finished please raise your hand and I will get you started on the lab.
Sept. 18, 2012 and Sept. 19, 2012
What is Accuracy?
Accuracy is a measure of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity being measured.
Who is more accurate when measuring a book that has a true value length of 17.0cm?

Susan: 17.0cm - 16.0cm - 18.0cm - 15.0 cm

Amy: 15.5cm - 15.0cm - 15.2cm - 15.3cm
EXAMPLE
What is Precision?
Precision is a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another. A measure of how exact a measurement is.
Who is more precise when measuring a book that has a true length of 17.0 cm?

Susan: 17.0cm - 16.0cm - 18.0cm - 15.0cm

Amy: 15.5cm - 15.0cm - 15.2cm - 15.3cm
EXAMPLE
Evaluate whether the following are precise, accurate, or both.
# 1
#2
#3
Error = Experimental - Accepted Value
If the true length of a book is 17cm and Billy Bob measured 15 cm, What is his error?
% Error =
Experimental - accepted value
accepted value
x 100
A
B
C
D
E
Mass (kg) Volume (L) Density (kg/L) Sink/Float
Welcome Back! Sept. 24, 2012
Get Going: List the 3 variables used in an experiment and define them.
Things that are/were due:
Density Sim Packet
Pre Lab Density Worksheet
pg. 41 # 1-10
Progress Reports
Finish up Labs

1. Station Labs

2. Accuracy and Precision
Good Morning/Afternoon Sept. 25, 2012

Get Going: Update your notecards with 3 NEW words: accuracy, precision, and % error
[word on 1 side, definition on the other]


Please turn in any missing assignments. Refer to the other white board for assignments that are past due.
Gummy Bear Lab


You will be working on your own during this lab.

Goggles must be worn. Remember to watch how you conduct yourselves in the lab. I am determining if you can handle a lab or not.
Practice: Safety Lab Worksheets

Work quietly on these and turn them in when you are finished.

PULL OUT YOUR NOTECARDS


This is time to study your notecards quietly to yourself.

The last 5 minutes you will pair up and quiz each other using your notecards.

Good Morning/Afternoon Sept. 26, 2012

Get Going: Pull out ALL your science papers, notes, foldable, notecards, and 3 prong folder.
Here is the order - compile your papers in this order:

Course Syllabus
Scientific Method Notes
Data Notes
The Metric System Notes
Law vs. Theory Notes
Observation Notes
Variables Notes
Density Notes
Accuracy/Precision Notes
Density graph In Class

Safety/Tool Folder
Lab Equipment Worksheet
BeriBeri Sheet
Vocab List
Study Guide

Airplane Lab
Qual/Quan Candle Lab
Shell Lab
PreLab Worksheet
Density -Station lab

Science Safety Test

NOTES
WORKSHEETS
LABS
QUIZZES/TESTS
DAY 2 - Gummy Bear Lab

Complete your Lab and turn it in the paper tray.

This Is JEOPARDY!!!!!!

Pick a handraiser in your group

First handraised gets to answer.

Must answer with "What is......"

Winning team gets bonus points and candy!!

1 day til EXAM Sept. 27, 2012

Get Going: Please take out your interactive folder and start studying your notecards, worksheets, and notes.

TODAY is agenda check! Have your agenda out and ready for me to check it. This week and last week should be filled out.


Alot of you have not turned in assignments. Please do not let your grade slip because of late work. Do your best to get it done!

Exam Day. Sept. 28, 2012

Get Going: PLEASE STUDY YOUR MATERIAL

Test Highlights:
1. Do NOT write on test - only answer key
2. No talking, cheating or its a zero and a phone call home
3. After completing test, bring it up to me and read quietly.
4. If you studied you have nothing to worry about.

Bonus Question (2):

If a box of candy has a length of 5cm, width of 2cm
and a height of 1 cm with mass of 50g. What is the density?
Full transcript