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M Puno

on 12 February 2013

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Transcript of Nepal

NEPAL President: Ram Baran Yadav (2008)
Prime Minister: Baburam Bhattarai (2011)

Land area: 52,819 sq mi (136,801 sq km);
total area: 54,363 sq mi (140,800 sq km)

26, 62089 (1.4% per annum)
birth rate: 22.4/1000;
infant mortality rate: 46.0/1000;
density per sq km: 206
life expectancy: 65.8
Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Kathmandu
1,203,100 (metro. area)
729,000 (city proper)
Other large cities: Biratnagar, 174,600; Lalitpur, 169,100
Monetary unit: Nepalese rupee Religion: Hinduism(81.3%), Buddhism(9.0%)
Major occupation: Agriculture International disputes: joint border commission continues to work on small disputed sections of boundary with India; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents. Government

In Nov. 1990, King Birendra promulgated a new constitution and introduced a multiparty parliamentary democracy in Nepal.
Under pressure amid massive pro-democracy protests in April 2006, King Gyanendra gave up direct rule and reinstated Parliament, which then quickly moved to diminish the King's power. In Dec. 2007, Parliament voted to abolish the monarchy and become a federal democratic republic. The transition to a republic was completed in May 2008, when the Constituent Assembly voted to dissolve the monarchy. Climatic conditions of Nepal vary from one place to another in accordance with the geographical features.
In the north, summers are cool and winters severe, while in south, summers are tropical and winters are mild.
Nepal has namely five major seasons:
spring, summer, monsoon, autumn and winter.
An average temperature drop of 6°C occurs for every 1,000 m gain in altitude.
In the Terai, summer temperatures exceed 37° C and higher in some areas, winter temperatures range from 7°C to 23°C in the Terai.
In mountainous regions, hills and valleys, summers are temperate while winter temperatures can plummet under sub zero. The valley of Kathmandu has a pleasant climate with average summer and winter temperatures of 19°C – 35°C and 2°C – 12°C respectively. Climate Stats Absolute Monarchy
(Until 1990) Parliamentary Monarchy
(1990-1996) Maoist Insurgency
(1996-2001) Royal Massacre
(2001) Suspension of the Parliament and Loktantra Andolan
(2005-2007) Federal Democratic Republic
(2008) History Newars are thought to have lived in the Nepal Valley since the 4th century AD, developing a Hindu-Buddhist culture. The Gurkha principality was later established by RAJPUT warriors from India, and in 1769 they conquered lands beyond the present-day borders of Nepal. After incursions into northern India in which the Gurkhas were defeated, Nepal lost part of its territory to British India but retained its independence and enjoyed close ties with the British.It has maintained its close association with India since the latter gained independence in 1947. Multiparty legislative elections held in May 1991 were won by the centrist Nepali Congress party; the Communists became the leading opposition party. Mid-term elections in November 1994, which were called after the government lost a parliamentary vote, resulted in a hung parliament and the communists, who emerged as the single largest party, formed a minority government. A dispute with India led to India's closing of most border crossings from March 1989 to July 1990, and the resultant economic crisis fueled demands for political reform. After months of violence, King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev dissolved parliament. The opposition formed an interim government in April 1990, and a new constitution creating a constitutional monarchy and a bicameral legislature became effective on Nov. 9, 1990. Nepal, the world's only Hindu monarchy, was controlled by a hereditary prime ministership until 1951. The nation's first election was held in 1959, but in 1960, King Mahendra dismissed the cabinet, dissolved parliament, and banned political parties. A 1962 constitution created a nonparty panchayat (council) system of government. After a 1980 referendum approved a modified version of the panchayat system, direct parliamentary elections were held in 1981. Natural Treasures Mount Everest Flora World Heritage Sites Fauna Bhaktapur Durbar Square Changu Narayan Temple Swayambhunath Pashupatinath Temple Lumbini Travel Bouddhanath Stupa Royal Chitwan National Park Sagarmatha National Park Khatmandu Durbar Square Mother's Day (Mata Tirtha Puja) This festival falls on the last day of the dark fortnight of April or early May. It is a day when one shows appreciation and gratitude to his/her mother for her unconditional love and undying support.
On this day, each house bustles with activities and everyone, , participates. There aren't much religious ceremonies but the fact that it is a day for mothers, calls for celebrations for she is the one who keeps the family together through ups and downs. Even the small children dig into their savings to buy gifts for their mothers. Sons and daughters living separately, come with presents and delicacies & spend time with their mothers. It is a day of reunion for married daughters with their mothers. The entire day is filled with festivities and merry making.
Those who don't have a mother pay visit Mata Tirtha, which is a sacred site of pilgrimage and holy bathing. It lies six miles south west of central Katmandu, consisting of two pools-the larger for bathing and the smaller is famous as the place where one "looks upon one's mother's face". Gokarna Aunsi (Father's Day) The Nepali religion , tradition and culture holds a lot of reverence for a father . He is considered the pillar of strength , respect and support of a family. The most auspicious day to honour one's father is Gokarna Aunsi . It falls on the dark fortnight in August or in early September.

A day when children show their gratitude and appreciation for his guidance and teachings in life. Sons and daughters, near or far, come with presents and confictions to spend the day with their fathers. Children spend their hoarded coins on presents, which expresses honour and love in their own special ways. The streets are a gay scene of married daughters on their way to their parents' home with delicacies . After the offering of gifts, they touch their father's feet with their foreheads , this act of veniration is done by the sons only , the daughters touch the hand. The ceremony is also known as "looking upon father's face" Gathemangal This festival celebrates the exorcism of the mythical demon Ghantakarna. According to a local legend a savage by the name of Ghantakarna used to terrify the public by stealing their children and womenfolk. The demon made a grotesque sight with his body painted in red, blue, and black. He had a pair of bells on his ears so that, at every moment, he made a jangling noise. Because of these bells, he was called Ghanta (bell) Karna (ears). Ghanta Karna was a big bully and demanded money and other gifts be made to him by the villagers. Gai Jatra The festival of "Gai Jatra", the procession of cows, is generally celebrated in the Nepalese month of Bhadra (August-September). The festival of cows is one of the most popular festivals of Nepal. The whole complex of Gai Jatra festival has its roots in the ancient age when people feared and worshipped Yamaraj,"the god of death". However, the ironical sessions synonymous with the Gai Jatra festival came into tradition in the medieval period of Nepal during the reign of Malla Kings. Hence, the present form of Gai Jatra is a happy blending of antiquity and medievalism.

According to the traditions, every family who has lost one relative during the past year must participate in a procession through the streets of Kathmandu leading a cow. If a cow is unavailable then a young boy dressed as a cow is considered a fair substitute. In Hinduism, a cow is regarded as the most venerated among all the domestic animals. It is believed that the cow, revered as a holy animal by Hindus, will help the deceased relative's journey to heaven. Festivals Gundruk Dried Spinach/ Fermented Vegetables
"Poor people food"
eaten with Dhedo Rice - "Bhat" Lentil Soup - "Dal"
Traditional Staple dish in South Asian Countries, especially Nepal.
Generally eaten twice a day. Dal Bhat Dhedo Average Nepali people have this as a meal
It is made of different kinds of flours, ranging from wheat to millet, which is boiled until thick.
it has a slightly gummy and fibrous texture with bland taste which goes great with curries and gundruk (vegetables). Sukuti
Beef Jerky/ Dried meat Other Outdoor Tourist Attractions The world's highest peak. 8,848 m (29,029 ft) Located at the Solukhumbu District, Sagarmatha Zone, Nepal. In Nepal, it's called "Sagarmatha" meaning "Goddess of the sky". Unicorn Rhino/ One horned Rhino The Royal Bengal Tiger Yak Life in Nepal Nepal is home to 6,390 species of flowering plants. ARCHITECTURE Animals Most houses in rural lowland of Nepal are made up of a tight bamboo framework and walls of a mud and cow-dung mix. These dwellings remain cool in summer and retain warmth in winter. Houses in the hills are usually made of unbaked bricks with thatch or tile roofing. At high elevations construction changes to stone masonry and slate may be used on roofs. Chaitya Style Pagoda Style Ultralight aircraft Trekking Hiking River Rafting Bungee Jumping Current Problems Environmental Problems Political Instability Population deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives) contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents) wildlife conservation vehicular emissions Bengal fox Trimeresurus Septentrionalis Snow Leopard Corsac Fox Tibetan Fox Red Panda
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