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Transcript of ANCIENT ROME
The ancient Romans worshiped their gods. One of the most important and powerful gods was Jupiter, their god of lightening and the sky. His brothers Neptune, the god of the sea, and Pluto, the god of the underworld and earth, were equally as powerful. There were other gods such as Mars (god of war), Juno (god of women and marriage), Bacchus (god of grapes and wine), and Vulcan (god of blacksmiths). They are just some of the major gods that Romans believed in. In total, there are hundreds of minor gods and 12 major gods.
Ancient Roman Government -The Republic
The Rome was a republic for 400 years. A republic is when the place is ruled by representatives voted in by the people. Two elected Consuls (the people who were elected) shared the most powerful position in the government. Their most important power was that they controlled the army. The Senate was made up of 300 leaders from wealthy families of ancient Rome, who were chosen by the Consuls. They were the law makers and decided how to spend money. The Assembly had limited power, and was composed of common citizens who assembled in the forum to vote.
Ancient Roman Government- The Empire
During the end of the republic, the people became unhappy and all the generals were struggling for power. Julius Caesar was a general who came from rich parents. He conquered Gaul (France) and governed it for 9 years. During that time he conquered pretty much all of western Europe, expanding Roman rule to the Atlantic. That made him famous, wealthy, and popular. Well the Senate thought he was gaining too much power, so they sent a letter to him, telling him to come home without his army. But he came home with his army. When he got back he started a civil war. He conquered all his rival general Pompey's land, then sailed for Egypt for help. He was friends with their pharaoh Cleopatra. She gave him money to take control of Rome. He gave land to his soldiers and people who weren't born in Rome,and gave poor people grain. Then the Senate ordered his execution. Julius Caesar died on March 15Th B.C.(the Ides of March). After he died Rome fell into chaos, everyone fought to succeed Caesar. After a lot of fighting Caesar's grand nephew and adopted son Octavian was crowned Imperator that means "one who commands." Our word Emperor comes from that. Octavian later became known as Augustus Caesar. As emperor Augustus could veto (overrule) any law, rule the provinces, and command the army absolutely. The government was still there it just didn't have any power. Augustus's rise to power was a long and bloody struggle, but it led to 200 years of peace called the Pax Romana. Most of Rome's inventions, cultural and political achievements happened then.
There are many coliseums in Italy, but the most famous one is in Rome. The bottom 3 rows are arches to let people through, the top 2 rows are walls with little windows. There used to be a canopy attached to the top so the important people wouldn't get hot. The people with the best view of the gladiators were the senators, then important officials, then citizens and soldiers, finally women and slaves. Inside, there would be gladiator vs gladiator, gladiator vs animal, reenactments of battles, and they would sometimes flood the arena for sea battles. The coliseum was built by emperor Vespasian in the year 72 AD and finished 8 years later in the year 80 AD. It could hold 50,000-80,000 people. Roman entertainment got more spectacularly blood thirsty over time. Most of the coliseum is still there today.
The Leaning Tower
of Pisa and the city of Lucca
The Leaning Tower of Pisa is in the city of Pisa, which is in the north-west part of Italy. It is leaning because the ground underneath it is sand and the foundation is soft. The Leaning Tower of Pisa is one of the most visited architectural structures (buildings) from ancient Europe. Tower of Pisa is 60 meters tall and until 1990 was leaning at about a 10 degree angle. Although it was designed to be perfectly vertical, it started to lean during construction.
The city of Lucca is named after it's greatest god, the god of everything LUCA PIZZUTI. The city of Lucca is a neighboring city to Pisa, so it is also in the north-west. One of its biggest attractions is the Guinigi Tower. It has a tree living at the top of the 228 steps.
Most Romans didn't play sports, but some did. They would exercise at public baths, sports arenas or padestra. Men would compete at wrestling, long jump, and swimming, and women would work out with weights. Boxing and chariot races were always played. The races took place on a circular track called a circus. The largest and most famous circus is Circus Maximus. The crowd was always excited and loved to see blood ,and most races had riots break out. Charioters who won became famous.
Mount Vesuvius, a volcano near Naples in Italy, is hundreds of thousands of years old and has erupted more than 50 times. Its most famous eruption took place in the year 79 A.D., when the volcano buried the ancient Roman city of Pompeii under a thick layer of grey ash. Two thousand people died, and the city was abandoned for almost as many years.
When a group of explorers rediscovered the site in 1748, they were surprised to find that underneath a thick layer of dust and debris Pompeii was mostly intact. The buildings, artifacts and skeletons left behind in the buried city have taught us a great deal about everyday life in the ancient world.
The lower class Romans lived in apartment houses, called flats. Wealthier Romans would rent out the upper parts of their apartments and even had running water. But others were not that nice. In the apartment houses, or flats, an entire family might all be crowded into one room, without running water. They had to haul their water in from public fountains. Fire was a very real threat because people were cooking meals in crowded quarters, and many of the flats were made of wood. They didn't have toilets, so they had to use public toilets. The upper class Romans lived very differently. Their homes were single family homes made of brick and with red tile roofs. The windows and balconies faced the courtyard, not the street, to keep homes safe from burglars. There was very little furniture, and no carpeting. Wealthy Romans might have a house with a front door, bedrooms, an office, a kitchen, a dining room, a garden, a temple, a toilet, and a private bath.
The ancient Roman motto is S.P.Q.R. That stands for, Senatus Populusque Quiritum Romanorum (the Senate and the Roman people).
The ancient roman people clothes were not like the clothes we have today. Instead of shirts and pants they had togas and tunics. Tunics were used by normal citizens. Togas were only used by the important people like people on the senate.
War and Technology
Ancient Rome had great technology, one of it's greatest is the road. The roads allowed troops and people to travel directly and safely to their destination. This was the key to their military domination. They used the same weapons the greeks used just improved them. They also used the catapult, to fire at large groups of people and crushing them under rock. The Roman empire stretched all the way to Lusitania,Africa,Egypt,Dacia,Assyria and Britannia. A Roman Soldier would carry a pila (spear),a shield,a dagger and a sword. for protection they would have a helmet,body amour,sandals,groin protector,wool tunic,and shoulder plates.
By Luca Pizzuti And Miles Chapman