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Transcript of Bacillus anthracis
Genius: B. cereus
Bacillus Celular Morphology Media Gram positive
Faculative anaerobe(grows without oxygen)
Rectangular rod-shaped bacterium with square ends
1-1.2 mm wide, 3-5 mm in length Growth Temperature range for optimum growth, 35-37*C Colonies are round, raised, opaque, and grayish white.
Under low power microscope, the edge of the colony is found to be compose of long interlacing chains of bacilli, resembling locks of matted hairs, so called "Medusa head" appearance Infectious particle of Anthrax Forms oval, centrally located endospores Oxygen required for sporulation
1 spore per cell
Dehydrated cells, highly resistant to heat, cold, chemical disinfection's, and dry periods.
Spore wall provides protection from chemicals & enzymes. Virulence Capsular Polypeptide Anthrax Toxins 2 Major Factors Each produced by separate plasmid Inhibits phagocytosis, loss of plasmid controls production of capsule, which leads to virulence Complex of 3 plasmids-encoded proteins Anthrax From the Greek word anthrakos
Cause by spores
Primarily a disease of domesticated & wild animals sheep, horses, cows, goats Natural reservoir is soil. does not depend on an animal reservoir, making it hard to eradicate
cannot be regularly cultivated from soils where there is an absence of endemic anthrax
occurs sporadically throughout U.S.
South Dakota, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, California are all recognized endemic areas Anthrax Zones Soil rich in organic matter (ph<6.0)
Dramatic changes in climate Infection & Spread May spread by streams, insects, wild animals, birds, contaminated wastes
Animals infected by soil borne spores in food & water or bites from certain insects
Humans can be infected when in contact with flesh, bones, hides hair, & excrement Cutaneous Anthrax Inhalation Anthrax Gastrointestinal Anthrax 3 Forms of Anthrax -skin
-spores enter to skin through small lesions -spores are inhaled -spores are ingested
-oral and abdominal Infection of Anthrax - Estimated number of naturally occurring human cases in the world is 20,000 to 100,00 per year.
-Humans are infected through contact with infected animals & their products because of human intervention
- Anthrax spores contaminate the ground when an affected animals dies & can live in the soil for many years
- Can also be spread by eating under cooked meat from infected animals - Not transmitted from person to person
- Humans can be exposed but not be infected Symptoms of Anthrax Early Phase Symptoms 2nd Phase Early phase -many symptoms can occur within 7 days of infection 2nd phase -will hit hard and usually occurs within 2/3 days after early phase -fever
-chills or night sweats
-headache, cough, chest discomfort, sore throat
-joint stiffness, joint pain, muscle aches
-shortness of breath
-enlarged lymph nodes, nausea, loss of appetite, abdominal distress, vomiting, diarrhea
-meningitis -breathing problems, pneumonia
-swollen lymph glands
-cyanosis (skin turns blue)
-death Cutaneous Anthrax Inhalation Anthrax Gastrointestinal Anthrax Diagnosis.. -gram stain, useful for cutaneous & inhalation, blood sample/skin lesion
-culture of B. anthracis from the blood, skin lesions, vesicular fluid, or respiratory secretions
-chest X-ray, useful for inhalation & GI
-CT scan, useful for inhalation & GI
-PCR, used for detection of anthrax toxins Treatment -before 2001 first line of treatment was penicillin G
-60 day course antibiotics
-doxycycline Vaccine -Biothrax/Anthrax vaccine absorbed
--made by Bioport
-Administered subcutaneously Who get this? people who work directly in the lab
people who work with infected animal hides or furs in areas of endemic spores
people who handle potentially infected animals products in high incident areas
Military personnel deployed to areas with high risks for exposure to organism Prevention vaccination
irradiation of susceptible materials
pre/post exposure antibiotic treatment
decontamination of exposed areas
use of protective clothing/equipment (Military use) a wee bit of history.. dates back more than 3,000 years
first cases of cutaneous anthrax came from men working with livestock, was referred to as "Rag Picker's" disease
studied and observed in Germany, Japan, UK, United States, and Iran
1970 anthrax vaccine was approved
1978-1980 largest outbreak of human anthrax via insects & contaminated meat struck Zimbabwe OUTBREAKS Early 1900's approximately 130 cases occurred annually due to:
-agricultural, farm workers exposed to infected animals
-processors exposed to infected animal products
(hair, leather, wool, bone)
-lab workers contacted with anthrax spores
-civilians exposed to contaminated imported animal products
These are rare today. Statistics Natural outbreaks in U.S.
& Worldwide U.S.
From 1955-1994, U.S. cases totaled 235, with 224 cutaneous, 11 inhalation, and 20 deaths
Since October 2001, 22 confirmed or suspected cases of anthrax
1958, approximately 100,000 cases of anthrax occurred worldwide Do I have anthrax?! ...no you don't. ..but I have some of the symptoms! Although your common cold, and flu have similar symptoms, there are differences: Anthrax Cold/Flu No runny nose!
severe breathing problems
high white blood cell count
no increase in number of lymphocytes runny nose!
no breathing problems
white blood cell count goes down
increase in lymphocytes Similar You will experience flu-like symptoms with both, however do not fret. Retrace your steps, have you eaten raw meat? Have you worn animal fur? Are you living with infected animals? Eating infected soil? No?
Treat your flu-like symptoms with some Tylenol flu.