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Psychology Chapter 6: Thinking and Intelligence
Transcript of Psychology Chapter 6: Thinking and Intelligence
adapt to change
profit from learning How do we define it? Sternberg's Triarchic Theory This theory states that human beings may have intelligence in one of three different areas Environment... Factors associated with reduced IQ: Or click on another Path element to continue from there e=mc Correlations in Siblings’ IQ Scores IQ Also known as... Concept Thinking and Intelligence The Elements of Cognition What if two groups of people have significant differences in IQ? Yes, we are all different! Yes, we are all different! Yes, we are all different! Yes, we are all different! Yes, we are all different! Yes, we are all different! Explaining Group Differences That's All Folks! Informal reasoning One more thing... Thinking and Intelligence A mental grouping of objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties Proposition A unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea Representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world 2 Apply the formula and get the right answer. A conclusion probably follows from a set of observations or propositions or premises, but could be false Given the information, try to figure out the formula or pattern used in real life used in school heuristic algorithm an exact formula or rule a "rule of thumb", general rule With all of this talk of intelligence, get this:
IQ is correlated to success in school
but not to success in life!
Research shows that the only thing
correlated to success in life is motivation! It's the ability to... IQ scores are distributed “normally” on a bell curve Very high and very low scores are rare. 68% of all people score here 99.7% fall between 55-145 Highest IQ ever recorded? 228! IQ is not the only theory of intelligence however... A theory created by Howard Gardner... Gardner’s theory maintains that there is not one way to measure intelligence, but eight distinct areas of intelligence. Linguistic
Natural Componential - a.k.a. “Analytic”
Comparing, analyzing, and evaluating.
This type of process correlates best with IQ.
Experiential - a.k.a. “Creative”
Inventing or designing solutions to new problems.
Transfer skills to new situations.
Contextual - a.k.a. “Practical”
Using (i.e., applying) the things you know in everyday contexts. IQ scores of siblings are highly correlated, even when they are raised apart. Identical twins have higher correlations than fraternal twins -
suggests a genetic link Inner city high school in Detroit Cadillac High School Within a group with all treated exactly the same, differences may reflect genetics.
When one group differs from another, the differences may reflect environmental differences. Think gardening... Poor prenatal care
Exposure to toxins
Stressful family circumstances Healthy and stimulating environments can raise IQ, sometimes dramatically. Cognitive Ethology: The study of cognitive processes in nonhuman animals. Can animals use language? Language is a critical element of human cognition.
Many animal species can be taught to communicate in ways that resemble language.
Chimpanzees and bonobos converse using American Sign Language and symbol board systems
An African gray parrot has been taught to count, classify, and compare objects using English words Whether these behaviors are language depends on how you define “language.” For example, can Maggie the dog do math? The dangers...
Anthropomorphism: The tendency to falsely attribute human qualities to nonhuman beings.
Anthropocentrism: The tendency to think, mistakenly, that human beings have nothing in common with other animals. Metacognition Tacit Knowledge thinking about thinking Skills that you pick up along the way without direct instruction And does Kanzi really understand English?