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Parallelism

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Kathy Liu

on 16 May 2013

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Transcript of Parallelism

Jenny likes to play basketball, to go skydiving, and drive golf carts. Parallelism What is Parallelism? Parallel Words and Phrases Incorrect: Examples Do NOT change voice between clauses.
(Active to Passive) Parallel Clauses Kevin Zeng
Kathy Liu With Gerunds My sister likes singing, cooking, and to shop. Correct: My sister like to sing, cook, and shop My sister likes to sing, to cook, and to shop. Examples Incorrect: The math teacher told her students that they should finish their homework, that they should practice extra problems, and to study for the test. Correct: The math teacher told her students that they should finish their homework, that they should practice extra problems, and that they should study for the test. Or The math teacher told her students to finish their homework, to do extra practice problems, and to study for the test Do NOT change the pattern of the words within the clause. Parallel Lists After a Colons Keep all elements of the list in the same form Do NOT jump between different parts of speech (eg. verb and gerund) Examples Tommy likes to do the following: play football, read encyclopedias, and not messing up his grammar. Tommy likes to do the following: play football, read encyclopedias, and use correct grammar. Parallelism is using the same structure of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. Because nobody likes discrimination in grammar. (Parallel Structure) Let's Get Parallel 1. In words or phrases, the verbs in question must be in a consistent form
2. All clauses should keep both the pattern and voice of the verb
3. If verbs are in a list, they must be present in a consistent form Main Ideas Today: Playing, singing, dancing To Infinitive-ity and Beyond To play, to sing, to dance With Present Tense Play, sing, dance The verb's form must be consistent. My sister likes singing, cooking, and shopping. Incorrect: Correct: Now it's your turn! Sample Questions #1: Easy Peasy Lemon Squeezy James' mom thinks he should clean his room, go to the mall, and should pick up some brussel sprouts. Listin' Em Again Examples continued... She volunteered as tribute because she is both caring of her sister and wanted her to be safe. Incorrect: If you were Jethro, you would be seen with the following: a forlorn expression, lack of money, and wearing tattered clothes. Correct: If you were Jethro, you would be seen with the following: a forlorn expression, lack of money, and tattered clothes. Sample Answers Jenny likes to play basketball, go skydiving, and drive golf carts. James' mom thinks he should clean his room, should go to the mall, and should pick up some brussel sprouts. Ted's new computer is cheap, shiny, and cool. She volunteered as tribute because she cares for her sister and wants her to be safe. Keep the Examples Coming Incorrect: When Dan tried to become a model, he was told that he needed to work out his abdominal muscles, that his smolder needed improvement, and to start wearing heels so he could practice his strut. Another Example Correct: When Dan tried to become a model, he was told that he needed to work out his abdominal muscles, that he needed to improve his smolder, and that he needed to wear heels so he could practice his strut. More Sentences to Correct John's father can tell that John was studying either his grammar or working on a project. When Stewie makes crepes he stirs, beat, taste, and bakes the mixture. Patrick's score on the recent English test is higher than Tom. They were rewarded for working hard and their dedication. INCORRECT He either must go or stay at home. Sample Answers #2 John's father can tell that John was either studying his grammar or working on a project. Patrick's score on the recent English test is higher than Tom's. They were rewarded for their hard work and dedication. He must either go or stay at home. CORRECT When Stewie makes crepes
he stirs, beats, tastes, and
bakes the mixture. Examples of Rhetoric Parallelism Shweta Chawla
Derek Feng PERIOD 4 Ted's new computer is cheap, shiny, and looks cool. What if Everyone Used Parallel Structure? Macklemore: Thrift Shop When he gets it right: They had a broken keyboard, I bought a broken keyboard
I bought a skeet blanket, then I bought a kneeboard. Does not change structure with words like buying or will buy. When he gets it wrong: Coppin' it, washin' it, 'bout to go and get some
compliments,
Passin' up on those moccasins someone else's been
walkin' in. Copping it, washing it, going to get some compliments,
Passing up on those moccasins someone else has been walking in. Even More?! Before writing a final draft of an essay, one should create an outline, write a rough draft, and allowing others to proofread it. Before writing a final draft of an essay, one should create an outline, write a rough draft, and allow others to proofread it. Rhetoric Parallelism The use of parallelism in many discourses is a very important tool of rhetoric. Seen in many speeches and works such as presidential inaugural speeches and addresses Bibliography "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty." - John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address "...and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." - Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address More and more examples. Fun! Incorrect: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." - Declaration of Independence Yesterday, Stan thought that the show should buy horses, to feature a guest star, and go collect money. Throwback? Part Two Rhetorical Parallelism Incorrect: Correct: Incorrect: Correct: Correct: Parallelism: Part One Yesterday, Stan thought that the show should buy horses, should feature a guest star, and should collect money. Identify the Parallelism! The Basic Rules in Grammar "For the Ireland of 1963, one of the youngest of nations and the oldest of civilizations, has discovered that the achievement of nationhood is not an end but a beginning. In the years since independence, you have undergone a new and peaceful revolution, an economic and industrial revolution, transforming the face of this land while still holding to the old spiritual and cultural values. You have modernized your economy, harnessed your rivers, diversified your industry, liberalized your trade, electrified your farms, accelerated your rate of growth, and improved the living standards of your people." - John F. Kennedy's Address to the Irish Parliament Found It? "For the Ireland of 1963, one of the youngest of nations and the oldest of civilizations, has discovered that the achievement of nationhood is not an end but a beginning. In the years since independence, you have undergone a new and peaceful revolution, an economic and industrial revolution, transforming the face of this land while still holding to the old spiritual and cultural values. You have modernized your economy, harnessed your rivers, diversified your industry, liberalized your trade, electrified your farms, accelerated your rate of growth, and improved the living standards of your people." - John F. Kennedy's Address to the Irish Parliament Sample Questions #2: Pretty Petty Last Exam(ples)! After the party, we want to either go to a movie or the diner. The writer was brilliant but a recluse. Tell me where you were, what you were doing, and your reasons for doing it. Jim not only likes working outside but also getting dirty. Kanye West Answers! Power Incorrect: Reality is catchin' up with me
Takin' my inner child, I'm fighting for it, custody
With these responsibilities that they entrusted me.
As I look down at my diamond encrusted piece. After the party, we want to go to a movie or go to a diner. Correct: Reality is catching up with me
[It's] Taking my inner child, I'm fighting for it, custody.
Entrusting me with all these responsibilities.
Looking down on my diamond encrusted piece. Jim not only likes working outisde, but also likes getting dirty. The writer was brilliant, but reclusive. Tell me where you were, what you were doing, and why you were doing it. Bibliography Parallel Structure: Purdue University's Online Writing Lab
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/623/1/ (Challenging) Parallelism: American Rhetoric http://www.americanrhetoric.com/figures/parallelism.htm Declaration of Independence http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_transcript.html Lil Wayne Okay, lil' mama had a swag like mine
She even wear her hair down her back like mine
I make her feel right when it's wrong like lyin’
Man, she ain’t never had a love like mine Lollipop Incorrect: Correct: Lil' mama had a swag like mine.
She wore her hair down her back like mine
I made her feel right when it was wrong like lying
She never had a love like mine. Address Before the Irish Parliament in Dublin, June 28, 1963 http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/lPAi7jx2s0i7kePPdJnUXA.aspx Bibliography (cont) Green Bicycle: http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?id=H.4679011339143548&pid=1.7 Person Working: http://blogs.msdn.com/blogfiles/willy-peter_schaub/windowslivewriter/vstsworkitemtrackingprojectandprocesscus_f51f/clipart_of_10909_sm_2.jpg "Unpossible Meme": http://ts4.mm.bing.net/th?id=H.4609540258333343&pid=1.7 "Hard Work Pays Off": http://ts4.mm.bing.net/th?id=H.4634287857861611&pid=1.7 City Mall: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pentagon_city_mall.jpg Train Tracks: http://blog.dreamlabsolutions.com/post/2008/10/07/Colorful-parallelism.aspx Group Projects: What They Teach You: http://www.g4tv.com/attackoftheshow/blog/post/718506/group-projects-what-they-teach-you/ Bibliography (cont) Learning English Process: http://byilmaz.edublogs.org/2012/04/09/my-learning-english-process/ Macklemore: http://i2.cdnds.net/13/04/618x325/music-macklemore.jpg Kanye West: http://netstorage.metrolyrics.com/artists/large/13550/kanye-west-kanye-west-s-media-advisor-quit-after-just-three-days-.jpg Parallelism Correlative Conjunctions Parallelism is often misused with words that compare two things, such as: Sentences with either, and then or.

Sentences with neither, and then nor.

Sentences with both and and.

Sentences with not only and but also. THE END Either/Or: Incorrect: Either we are going to go to the mall or the movies.
Correct: We are either going to the mall or going to the movies. Incorrect: We are neither going to the mall nor see the movie.
Correct: We are neither going to the mall nor seeing the movie. Neither/Nor: Both/And Incorrect: After a long day, I like both to vegetate in front of the television and relax.





Incorrect: Shweta is not only tired of these words, but also wants to move on. Not Only/But Also Yay. Correlative Conjunctions Part 2! Correct: After a long day, I like both to vegetate in front of the television and to relax.
Correct: Shweta is not only tired of these words, but also ready for the next concept.
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