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Transcript of Civilization
Zhu Di (1398-1557)
Mali is known as the "Jewel of West Africa's Crown," due to its beautiful natural landmarks.
The Ming Empire experienced decline from thriving and prosperity during the rule of Emperor Shenzong. Zhang Juzheng, a chancellor helped the emperor to make improvements in national economy, agriculture, water conservancy and military affairs. After Zhang Juzheng died the emperor began to neglect state affairs and interests.
Start of Decline...
Mosque in Djenne
Famous Art Work
The dominoes began to fall as the dynasty was defeated in battle by a regime.
The end of the dynasty arrived during Emperor Weizong's reign named Chongzhen. Corruption rose as court officials misused power amongst the people.
Before I continue, I want to re-inform the audience of the fact of the Mandate of Heaven of which dynasties believed controlled leadership.
Ruler: Sudijata Kieta
His name means“hungering lion" (1230-1255). He overthrew a weak king of a kingdom, and Created the Mali Empire. He built up a vast empire that stretched from the Atlantic coast, south of the Senegal River to GAO, on the east of the middle Niger bend. Under his leadership, Mali became a rich farming area. The Mali Empire was based on outlying areas pledging allegiance to Mali and giving annual tribute in the farm of rice, millet, lances, and arrows. Slaves were used to clear new farmlands where new crops were planted. Ruled for 25 years until he died.
Names means "sultan, emperor of chief" (1312-1337). He was a Muslim leader, and promoted it strongly. He divided the empire into provinces, each with its own governor and towns that were administrated by mochrif or a mayor. The Army kept peace, putting down rebellions in the smaller kingdoms bordering the central part of the Empire and policing the many trade routes. He also established the Islamic University in Timbuktu where scholars studied Arabic, surgical procedures, science and math. He went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and brought back practices of Islamic beliefs to help promote it in Mali. People says, his rule was the most successful out of all Mali's rulers Within his 25 years of ruling, he doubled the size of Mali.
Ruler: Mansa Musa
Music And Arts' Role in Culture
Music has always been a way to express pride in the Malian Culture, during brutal times.
Dancing in costumes during holidays like Tamaski which translated is the "Feast of Sacrifice."
Under the leadership of the earliest rulers, the government was well organized. The government was set up similar to the feudalism triangle. At the top where the kings or the rulers, next were the priests, then came the storytellers, then lastly where the slaves. The way the government was set up each person has specific duties, with this in place the reign was extended and very prosperous. However, after Mansa Musa's ruling the Empire began to fall and the government collapsed.
Malians are proud of their heritage, they celebrate every holiday for the religions located there with no problem. Their community is accepting, this allowed the Malian culture and all its factors which make will allow it to "live forever."
The religion of Islam, was the primary religion in the Mali Empire. Sudjata was the founder of the Empire but his practice of religion was very weak. It wasn't until Mansa Musa came into ruling when Islamic beliefs were carried out. He had taken a pilgrimage to Makkah, upon his returning he brought back several Muslim scholars and architects who built five mosques. The Islamic culture was given it's biggest boost during the ruling of Mansa Musa. His pilgrimage attracted more Muslim traders and scholars, which helped boost the cultural and economic development of Mali. Being under the Islamic religion opened up avenues of knowledge for pilgrims. It help them learn about geography, literature, history, mathematics, astronomy, and other areas of science, especially medicine. Converting to Islam opened up doors of opportunity for people such Knights, chiefs, and towns people who had strong political and economic motives. The Islam religion gave them a sense of education, hope, and integrity. Mansa Musa worked in their favor and to give them what they needed. Even today Islam is still the predominant religion in Mali.
Rise of the Mali Empire
The Mali Empire was the second out of the three empires which were built due to the political leaders of Ghana losing control due to a conquest Almoravids in 1076. It had a distance of nearly 1,800 miles and height in 1300, Mali was one of the largest empires in the world.
Ming Empire's Rise to Power
The Ming dynasty arose due to Yuan dynasty losing its Mandate of Heaven. They believed the Mandate was lost due to famines, droughts, floods, bubonic plague, and other natural disasters. After coming to power, it ruled for over 300 years.
The Ming culture grew rapidly but not like other cultures. Art and music are expressed but education emphasized. Some famous works were Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West, and more with famous writers such as Tang Yin, Song Lian, and Zhang Dai. This is ironic because in order to be classified as even poorly educated you had to know hundreds of different symbols or characters.
"Art And Literature As One"
The Forbidden Kingdom
He reigned for thirty years and instituted major policy initiatives. He made sure the eunuchs had no ruling power because he believed they were dangerous. He passed the Neo-Confucian Imperial Examinations. He was an advocate for the peasants because he was born into poverty. He distributed land within them and wanted peasants to live in self-supporting agricultural communities. As for the merchants, he wanted to weaken their class and make them pay higher taxes. The Hongwu Emperor also issued paper currency. Paper currency became the main currency in the Yuan Empire after his death. After he became the Emperor, he became fearful of rebellions and mutiny. It is said that in 1380, a thunderbolt hit his palace, and he stopped the killings and massacres for some time because he was afraid that Heaven would punish him. While he was dying in 1398, he had his physicians and concubines put to death.
Zhu Yuanzhang's will had read that his grandson Zhu Yunwen would become the ruler when he died in 1398. His grandson had ruled for four years, until his uncle had rebelled against him. His name was Zhu Di. He burnt down the palace Zhu Yuanzhang had built move the capital to Beijing. The Ming army destroyed the palace in Beijing when they first captured the city. The famous forbidden city was built as a palace for the new emperor. To quicken transportation to his capital he rebuilt the Grand Canal, it increased trade in the North.
Within the Ming Dynasty, many religions had inclined. The most prominent religions were Buddhism and Taoism. Many people thought it was important to have a harmonious relationship with nature.
During this time many prayers and written literature where established to create harmony with nature. While on the other hand, many people spend their entire life following Buddha's teachings.
Christianity had also inclined in the Ming Dynasty. The teachings of Christianity had come from Italians. The Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci was on of them.
He had persuaded Chinese members of the upper-class to follow his teachings.
Even though the Ming Dynasty collapsed as early as 1600, many of the religions practiced back then they are still predominant now.
The Ming Dynasty government was extremely organized. Everyone was under the direct control of the Emperor. There was only one department the Secretariat. The Secretariat had controlled the six ministries. Later, the Censorate was reestablished and institutionalized. They had direct access to the Emperor and could impeach officials for dereliction of duty. Generally the Secretariat had one job, was to coordinate essentially one of the six ministries with the other. The six ministries had functions such as Personnel ,Revenue, Rites, War, Justice and Public Works. The Ministry of Personnel handed all matters relating to government employees. The Ministry of Revenue was in charge of tax collection. The Ministry of Rites was in charge of all ceremonial matters and priesthood. The Ministry of War was in charge of all matters relating to the Armed Forces. The Ministry of Justice was responsible for the judicial and penal process. The Ministry of Works was in charge of all government construction projects and maintenance of roads.
As a result for the loss of the Mandate of Heaven the people rebelled as they had been mistreated to a degree by the Ming officials. Another indication was the natural disasters including the earthquake in Shaanxi in 1556. It was the most dangerous earthquake in history claiming about 800,000 lives. Afterward, there were major eartquakes claiming large percentages of the population.
C., Stephanie. stephisafrshman15-maliempire.blogspot.com. 2 December 2011. Website. 24 October 2014.
Drake, Chris. mali.pwnet.org. 2002. Web site. 4 October 2014.
Im, Sang and Brooks Widmaier. fcps.edu. January 2003. Website. 4 October 2014.
S., Kelly. maliempiretechnology.blogspot.com. 11 December 2011. Web site. 4 October 2014.
Decline of the Mali Empire
Unlike the Ghana empire, the Mali Empire's collapse was not due to conquering. The Mali empire collapsed because of Mansa Musa's sons fight for the crown. After his death they could not contain the empire their father and other powerful rulers had built. States that were conquered and added on to the empire broke off for independence.
One concise ruler after the death of many powerful leaders could be found as their offspring fought among themselves.
The empire split in three parts with Kangba, Joma, and Kouroussa.
Kangba formerly was the capital of Mali. After the feuding it became the capital of the northern sphere.
The Joma region governed from Siguri and dominated the central region including Niani
Hamana was the last part southwest of Joma. It was the southern sphere with Kouroussa as its capital in todays Guinea
founder of maliam empire, Sundiata
most successful ruler of Malian Empire, Mansa Musa
founder of Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang
took control after 2nd ruler, Zhu Di
the ordering of the Six Ministries
popular religion of the Ming Dynatsy, Buddhasim
Popular religion of the Ming Dynasty, Taoism
The Mali occupied large grasslands to grow cash and food crops, in which were traded in markets in the village. The Mali have also used railways to trade back and fourth. Then, they also began to trade gold dust. The first mining sight of gold was at a tributary at the upper segenal river. As time passed, more mining sights began to be discovered further east. The King selfishly kept the nuggets and allowed trade of gold dust.
But crops and gold dust was not the only thing traded in the markets. They also had slaves that were available for trade on the markets.
They had gold alongside of the crops on the market. The first mining sight was at a tributary at the upper segenal river. As time passed, sights were found further east. Selfishly, the King kept the nuggets to himself while he allowed the trade of gold dust in the markets.
The Mali occupied large areas of grasslands, in which they created cash and food crops in that area. They also used their large area to create markets and places where other civilizations can come and trade at.
The new market economy made it easier for farmers to maintain large areas of land to create cash crops that could be sold in the markets. Trade from Ming reached as far as Japan and Europe.
The Ming constructed bridges and other tool s that allowed them to trade with further civilizations.
They had over 300 factories that made pots and other dishes that were useful for trade. Too bad in the factories, they used forced labor as a method to their success.
Oversea trade brought in
about 300 million silver
taels to the Ming.
They also had factories for
iron and salt. Those were
objects that other
civilizations really wanted.
Civilization explains how things, people, culture, religion, and economy come about. Civilizations rise and fall all of the time. Today we are going to learn about the rich history of the Mali and Ming empires.
The green stands for
fertility of the land
Gold means purity
and mineral wealth
Red symbolizes the blood shed
for independence from the French