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Communicating with Children

NURS 1032
by

Jessica Clark

on 24 March 2013

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Transcript of Communicating with Children

(Berger, 1980) I love my Nurse! I have Autism but my Nurse knows how to talk to me. "Sometimes my Nurse needs to talk to my Parents." Communicating with Children How to communicate with terminally ill children I'm sick but my Nurse knows
how to make me feel better. NonVerbal
facial expressions
gestures
body language Present complex information in smaller chunks

Repeat key points and allow for questions When communicating with children who have psychological or behavioural disorders it is important to:
1. speak slowly and clearly
2. keep language simple and literal
3. pause and give the child time to process
4. do not insist on eye contact it may cause distress and loss of concentration
- Involve parents in the goal setting process

- Discuss problems with parents directly and honestly

- Involve parents in as much hands-on care as possible - Parents feel helpless when they cannot "parent" their sick child.

- Parents may be under financial and/or marital strain

- They need acknowledgment of their feelings. 1. Because parents are entitled to a full explanation of their child's condition. What Do You Think? Pease & Pease (2002) Research has shown that the right hemisphere of the female brain tends to grow more rapidly than their male counterparts. Female communication patterns tend to focus on being respectful, nurturing, and indirect.

"Rapport" type talk. Research has also shown that the left hemisphere of the male brain has been found to grow earlier in age than in females. Boys tend to be more direct, honest and factual when communicating.

"Report" type talk. 1. Students will have a better understanding of how to effectively communicate with school-aged children.

2. Students will be able to use the four different learning styles to effectively communicate with children.

3. Students will have a better understanding of how gender, physical and psychological illness can impact communication methods with children. http://edendavis3312.wordpress.com/category/uncategorized/ Using Vehicles to Communicate with Children -“The Squiggle Game”
- Created by D.W. Winnicott (1896-1971)

- Method:
- Physician draws a squiggle.
- Child is asked to make a picture out of it.
- Picture can be anything except numbers or letters.
- Role reversal- child draws the squiggle and physician makes the picture.

- The squiggle-drawing game:
- Incorporates a story telling technique coined by Gardner and Kritzberg. Nonverbal Behaviour of Children During Communication

- Children often reluctant to verbally disclose when they are suffering physical and/or emotional distress.

- Important to look for cues and behaviour that may indicate that the child is in distress.

- Coding scheme used to measure nonverbal behaviours.

- Presence of the following nonverbal behaviours suggestive of stress, physical disengagement, and positive/negative emotions. (Claman, 1980) The 6 "E"s to remember:
1. Establish
2. Engage
3. Explore
4. Explain
5. Empathize
6. Encourage Using V. A. R. K. to communicate with children. Using audio/visual aids
Verbal explanations & diagrams
Using your senses
Expressive art ~ Activity ~ Reformulate the following expressions so that a child could easily understand.

1. Inflammation
2. Infection
3. Operating Room
4. Vital Signs
5. Nausea Objectives Building Rapport Lower to child's eye level
Look for clues about child's interests
Have an open demeanor Basic Tips to Remember Understand how the child feels about the situation
Help the child assume responsibility of their own health care practice
Use concrete examples
Authenticity and veracity -Stress: Twitching, fidgeting, pulling hair, tapping, shifting position, biting/sucking/licking, rigidity/tensing up, and self-soothing movements.

-Physical disengagement: Shrinking, closing off, looking away, covering, getting up, and turning away.

-Emotions: Anger, fear, sadness, shame, disgust, smiling/laughter, and happiness. -Why it’s important:
- Parents are usually the only source of information when communicating with young children.
- Children unaccustomed to expressing feelings and opinions in words. Parent asked to interpret the child’s feelings or behaviour.
- Vehicle for enhancing communication between adults and the school aged child.
- Not a substitute for a detailed family and social history, but rather facilitates discussion with the child.
- Drawings as an active means of psychotherapy.
- Provide important insights into a child’s world. When interacting with school aged children who have psychological disorders, you need to be mindful that there is not one specific way to communicate with them. You need to determine what form of communication works best for that particular child.

Example 1: communicating using technology
Example 2: communicating using music 2. Because parents look to Nurses for support and direction
when caring for their child. 3. Because parents are stressed and angry that they can't make everything better. Males Females Pease & Pease (2002) The term “Communication” covers just about any interaction with another person. In its simplest form, communication can be defined as the process of transmitting information from one person to another.

Communication has two main purposes:

1. To influence others.
2. To obtain information. Communication skills such as listening, questioning and paraphrasing as well as understanding, recognizing and using body language are essential for professionals to develop a trusting relationship with children.

The way communication is sent and received is equally important.

Summarize situations in the appropriate way for the individual you are communicating with, taking into account factors such as background, age and personality. Be able to recognize when communication has not been effective.

Miscommunication is a common problem and can cause frustration and even conflict between the sender and receiver.

To ensure miscommunication does not occur, written and spoken exchanges have to be expressed in straightforward language, avoiding jargon. “Seek first to understand, then to be understood” Stephen Covey (Dunhill, Elliot & Shaw, 2010.) (Kozier et al; 2010) (Dunhill, Elliot & Shaw, 2010.) (Dunhill, Elliot & Shaw, 2010.) As children develop they become more
aware of these nonverbal cues; unlike,
some children with psychological
disorders. (Browne, 2006) If verbal language does not work try using a different methods such as:
1. American Sign Language (ASL)
2. Music
3. Technology
4. Demonstrations
5. Pictures (Browne, 2006) (Berger, 1980; Claman, 1980) (Katz, Hershkowitzb ,Malloya, Lamba, Atabakia & Spindlera, 2012) (Katz, Malloya, Lamba, Atabakia & Spindlera, 2012) (Gray Deering & Jennings Cody, 2002) Review: 10 key points to remember when communicating with parents (Arnold & Boggs, 2011) (Arnold & Boggs, 2011) (Arnold & Boggs, 2011) (PRN Health Services, 2012) Modes of communication: Verbal and Nonverbal

Verbal communication refers to speaking and way you convey your words. It includes:
Pace, simplicity and vocabulary, timing, relevance, Credibility and humor.

Nonverbal communication refers to what is not being said. It includes: Body language, body movements and use of touch. (Kozier et al; 2010) Case 2: Aaron Case 1: Steven (Katz, Hershkowitzb ,Malloya, Lamba, Atabakia & Spindlera, 2012) (Berger, 1980; Claman, 1980) The "Squiggle Game" Activity (Arnold & Boggs, 2011; Gray Deering & Jennings Cody, 2002) Key Points to Remember: - In general, the differences of verbal and non verbal communication with children
-Gender differences when communicating with children
-Using vehicles and other means to communicate with children
-Considering psychological and behavioural differences
-how to communicate with physically and terminally ill children
-Remember to communicate with the parents (Berger, 1980) (Claman, 1980) (Arnold & Boggs, 2011) (Beale, Baile & Aaron, 2005)
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