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Organizational Behavior: Motivation
Transcript of Organizational Behavior: Motivation
Human Resource Management & Organizational Behavior
LUZVIMINDA N. PINGOL
Motivation it is a process which starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or
that activities or a
that is aimed at a goal or
Stephen P.Robbins, The individual-Basic motivation concepts, in Organizational Behavior, 11th ed. (Pearson Prentice Hall), p.170
Types of Needs
2. Secondary needs
Early theories of motivation
Herzberg's Two-factors theory
Frederick Herzberg, survey in the late fifties
Understand employee motivation and satisfaction
A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory
Motivation & Hygiene Factors
Not applicable in all conditions
Effects of hygiene and motivation factors can differ among categories of people.
Human being takes credits for satisfaction and blame external factors for dissatisfaction
Intrinsic Motivators vs Extrinsic Motivators
- are internal rewards that a person feels when performing a job, so there is a direct and often immediate connection between work and rewards. ex. curiosity, passion, cooperation
- are external rewards that occur apart from the nature of work, providing no direct satisfaction at the time the work is performed. ex. rewards, threat of punishment
Goal Setting Theory
Established by Edwin A.Locke in 1969.
Perform monitoring & feedback
Expectancy model also known as expectancy theory, developed by Victor Vroom & expanded & refined by Porter & Lawler.
Implication of Expectancy Model
Bill Packard, one of the two founders of HP on MBO
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
Three Elements of Motivation
Direction & focus of the behavior
- (positive factors are dependability, creativity, helpfulness, timeliness, dysfuntional factors are tardiness, absenteesism, withdrawal and low performance)
Level of the effort
- provided (making a full commitment to excellence versus doing just enough to get by)
Persistence of the behavior
- (repeatedly maintaining the effort versus giving up permanently)
is the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.
is the drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationship.
is the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise.
1. Primary Needs
- these needs arise from the basic requirements of life and are important for survival of the human race.
Types of Needs
are more vague because they represent needs of the mind and spirit rather than of the physical body.
Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist, viewed the motivation of human beings as arising from levels of hierarchy of needs.
According to him, each one of us is a "wanting" being.
Interpreting the Hierarchy of Needs
People have needs they wish to satisfy and that gratified needs are not as strongly motivating as unmet needs.
Employees are more enthusiastically motivated by whay they are currently seeking than by receiving more of what they already have.
A fully satisfied need will not be the strong motivator.
Limitation of Maslow Theory
Five levels of need are not always present
individuals behavior seems to respond to several needs-not just one
Importance of needs is not always the same.
Alderfer's E-R-G Model
Comparison of Maslow & Alderfer Models
Organizational behavior modification
- is the application in organizations of the principles of behavior modification, which envolved from the work of
B.F. Skinner (Reinforcement Theory)
- Focuses on encouraging appropriate behavior by controlling the consequences of that behavior
- The role of rewards as the cause behavior to change or remain the same over time.
relies heavily on the
LAW OF EFFECT
, which states that a person tends to repeat behavior that is accompanied by favorable consequences (reinforcement) and tends not to repeat behavior that is accompanied by unfavorable consequences.
Implications of Behavior Modification
Managers have to:
- Set clear and Reasonable expectations
- Identify strong motivators
- Encourage desirable behavior
- Effectively use reinforcement
Clarify amount of effort required
Provide support when necessary
Find out what reward individual expects
Ensure an equitable system
A motive is an inner state that energizes, activities or moves and directs behavior towards goals. Motives arise out of the needs of individuals.
is the technique used to motivate people in organization.
Motivation is a Latin word, which means to move.
: are created when there is a deprivation or deficiency. Here a physiological or psychological imbalance exists.
: Drives are deficiencies with direction. They are action oriented and provide a thrust towards achieving an incentive or goal.
Incentive or goal
: Attaining an incentive will restore the balance. After achieving the goal, needs & drives will be reduced.
Nature/Characteristics of Motivation
1. Unending process
2. A psychological concept
3. Whole individual is motivated
4. Motivational may be financial or non-financial
5. Motivation can be positive or negative
6. Motivation & job satisfaction are different.
Doing better than competitors
Attaining a difficult goal
Solving complex problem
Being liked by many people
Working with people who are friendly & co-operative
Participating in pleasant social activities
Controlling people & activities
Being in a position of authority over others
Defeating an opponent
1. Hierarcy cannot be regarded as rigid. For some people, the levels may not be clearcut & may tend to overlap.
2. Some individuals may lack ambition & may remain at the primary levels of the hierarchy concerned only with physiological & safety needs
ex. are the needs that pertain to self-esteem, sense of duty, competitiveness, self-assertion, and to giving, belonging and receiving affection.
ex. include food, water, sleep, air, and reasonably comfortable temperature.
Extrinsic & related to Dissatisfaction
Intrinsic & related to Satisfaction
Herzberg says that hygiene factors must be met to remove dissatisfaction. If motivators are given, then satisfaction can occur.
Have a nice day!