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Activity 3.2.5 Cancer Screenings
Transcript of Activity 3.2.5 Cancer Screenings
Both men and women should begin testing at the age of 50
Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer
Those who are at high risk should consider getting a screening for lung cancer,
Some methods for detecting lung cancer include:
Yearly mammograms are recommended for women who are over 40
Clinical breast exams (CBE) should be taken every 3 years for women in their 20's and 30's.
Self breast exams (SBE) should start when women are in their 20's
Activity 3.2.5 Routine Screenings
Sarah Moh and Ashley Kovach-Hammons
Testing 21 years and older
Tests that find polyps and cancer
Flexible sigmoidoscopy (every 5 years)
Colonoscopy (every10 years)
Double-contast barium enema (every 5 years)
CT colongraphy: virtual colonoscopy (every 5 years)
Other tests include the yearly blood occult test, yearly immunochemical test, and stool DNA test.
Pap smears are recommended for women over the age of 21 every 3 years.
In a mammogram, one's breasts are temporarily compressed between two plates where the bottom plate contains the x-ray that makes the image. Compression of the breasts may be painful but taking a picture may last only a few seconds.
At the age of 30, women should also begin to have tests for HPV. This co-testing should occur every 5 years.
American Cancer Society. (Dec. 10 2013). How is a mammogram donw? Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.org/healthy/findcancerearly/examandtestdescriptions/mammogramsandotherbreastimagingprocedures/mammograms-and-other-breast-imaging-procedures-having-a-mammogram
Women over the age of 65 should stop testing if they have had normal results.
"Colonoscopy is an outpatient procedure during which your large bowel (colon and rectum) is examined from the inside. Colonoscopies are usually used to evaluate symptoms like abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, or changes in bowel habits. They are also used to screen for colorectal cancer." (WebMD)
Who should get tested?
Men and women between the ages of 55-74
Those in fairly good health
Those who smoke more than 40 packs per year.
Those who still smoke or have quit smoking for the past 15 years.
A CT Scan may be best for they are more likely to show lung tumors than the other two test. Here, the CT scan uses an X-ray to produce cross sectional images of the body. The computer will then compile all the the pictures, making it easier to spot any abnormalities.
Large Mass in lung, using a CT scan
American Cancer Society. (Feb. 21 2014). Exams and tests to look for lung cancer. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-non-smallcell/moreinformation/lungcancerpreventionandearlydetection/lung-cancer-prevention-and-early-detection-exams-and-tests
National Cancer Institute. (n.d.). Mammograms. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/mammograms
WebMD. (Dec. 7 2011). Colonoscopy. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/colorectal-cancer/colonoscopy-16695
A pap smear or transvaginal ultrasound may detect Endometrial cancer; however, there is no routine screening for this cancer.
Symptoms to look out for...
Vaginal bleeding after menopause
Bleeding between periods
Abnormal discharge from vagina
Pain during intercourse
Some women may need a yearly Endometrial biopsy.
Depending on a male's risk for prostate cancer, he should start getting tested at a certain age.
Average risk: Start screening at age 50
High risk (including those who have a first-degree relative who was diagnosed before the age of 65): Start screening at age 45
Higher risk (including those who have a first-degree relative who was diagnosed at an early age): Start screening at age 40
The intervals between screenings is determined by PSA levels, found through a PSA blood test.
PSA: Prostate-Specific Antigen
Digital rectal exams may also be a part of screening.
Those with a PSA > 2.5ng/mL should get tested yearly.
Those with a PSA < 2.5 ng/mL should get tested biyearly.
During a pap smear, a doctor opens the vagina slightly with an instrument called the speculum.
Then, cells are taken from the cervix and put on a slide to be observed under a microscope.
Normal Results will show no abnormal cells present.
Abnormal results show ASCUS or AGUS, CIS, LSIL or HSIL, ASC, or AGC.
ASCUS or AGUS: There are atypical cells with unknown significance.
CIS: (Carcinoma in situ) Likely to form cervical cancer.
LSIL or HSIL: (Low-grade dysplasia or high-grade dysplasia) precancerous changes are likely to be present.
ASC: (Atypical squamous cells) abnormal changes found
AGC: (Atypical glandular cells) changes that may lead to cancer are found
During a prostate exam, an ultrasound probe is put into the rectum to reach the anus.
Digital Rectum Exam
During a DRE, a doctor inserts his finger (gloved and lubricated) into the rectum to check for any abnormalities.
MedlinePlus. (Feb. 26 2014). Digital Rectal Exam. Retrieved from: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007069.htm
American Cancer Society. (Feb. 25 2014). American Cancer Society recommendations for prostate cancer early detection. Retrieved from: www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/moreinformation/prostatecancerearlydetection/prostate-cancer-early-detection-acs-recommendations
MayoClinic Staff. (May 14 2014). Endometrial Cancer. Retrieved from: www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-condition/endometrial-cancer/basics/symptoms/con-20033696
National Cancer Institute. (n.d.). Endometrial Cancer Screening. Retrieved from: www.cancer.org/cancertopics/pdg/screening/endometrial/Patient/page3
MedlinePlus. (Feb. 26 2014). Pap Smear. Retrieved from: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003911.htm