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African Americans & Reconstruction
Transcript of African Americans & Reconstruction
it was just a verbal statement really....until the war
ended. The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves as a war
plan, but had not made slavery illegal. Abolitionists worked to make slavery illegal. December 18, 1865 Made slavery illegal with the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment. Lincoln's 10% plan: a plan for bringing the Southern states back into the Union when 10% of the voters of the state took an oath of loyalty to the Union. The state would then form a new government, adopt a new constituition, and ban slavery.
- Amnesty(pardon's) would be granted to all white Southerners who affirmed loyalty to the Union, except those who were Confederate leaders. Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee established governments under Lincoln's plan Congress refused to allow these states or any other Southern states to participate in congress. The New Republican radical Party, led by Thaddeus Stevens, declared that Lincoln's plan was to light...and to kind to Southern traitors. Steven's said: " Southern Institutions must be broken up and relaid, or all our blood and treasures have been spent in vain. Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill. The Freedman's Bureau: a war
department agency that was created to
help "freedmen" (former slaves) have food,
housing, education, and work. April 14, 1865 President Lincoln
is shot by John Wilkes Booth. Vice President Andrew Johnson
becomes President. Johnson had no desire to help black's, and
he believed in a lenient plan as he and Lincoln
had discussed. 13th Amendment: abolished slavery
in all parts of the United States...effective
January 1865. All states except Texas had formed new governments and were ready to rejoin the Unin...Johnson declared Restoration was almost complete. Black Codes: laws Southern states enacted to prevent blacks from
having freedoms the North were trying to force through. Blacks were arrested for being unemployed and made to
work in order to pay fines. Other's were banned from owning/renting land. Congress passed The Civil Rights Act of 1866: This act gave full citizenship to blacks, as well as gave the federal gov't the power to intervene on their behalf in order to protect them. Andrew Johnson said the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Freedman's Bureau was unconstitutional and an overstepping of federal duties. He vetoed them. Congress got enough votes to over-ride Johnson's veto and passed the bills so they became law. The 14th Amendment: ensured that black Americans would not lose their rights the Civil Rights provided....it gave full citizenships to all individuals born in the United States. Republicans win major congressional elections in 1866. Reconstruction Act of 1867: The first Reconstruction act called for the creation of new governments in the 10 Southern states that had not ratified the 14th amendment, The 10 Southern states were divided up into 5 military districts and placed each under the authority of a military commander until new governments were formed. Blacks were ensured the right to vote in state elections, but Confederate leaders were prevented from holding political office. The second reconstruction act: required military commanders to begin registering voters and to prepare for new state conventions. Republican Congress passed law's limit Johnson's powers. Tenure of Office Act of March 1867. It prohibited the President from removing government officials...including his own cabinet...without Senate approval. Republican Congress was
threatening Presidential Power
and ignoring the Constitution. In retaliation Johnson suspended Secretary of War Edwin Stanton when Congress was not in session, without Senate approval. The House of Represenatives voted to IMPEACH Johnson. The issue went to trial. In the Senate: One vote short of the 2/3rds requirement....Johnson was able to remain in office until the end of his term. Election of 1868: Ulysses S. Grant is elected as President of the United States. 15th Amendment: Prohibited the state and federal government from denying the right to vote to any male citizen becaue of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. https://docs.google.com/document/edit?id=1jR4dF3it9lX2xK7CYiMynEeU6xKcIjrIZOQhrCtXT7s&hl=en# You Decide....Should Johnson be impeaced or not? You will simulate the impeachment of Johnson in class. Research him, Congress, Reconstruction Arguments....Prepare to discuss/debate.