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7 States of Matter

Yr9 Chemistry Assignment, States of Matter
by

Mitchell Drennan

on 19 June 2013

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Transcript of 7 States of Matter

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
By Mitchell Drennan
THE 7 States of Matter
Solids
Liquids
Gases
Quark-Gluon Plasma
Bose-Einstein Condensate
Fermionic Condensate
Ionized Plasma
Introduction
Conclusion
Matter is a physical substances that occupies space and possesses mass. Erevything around us is made of matter. Matter is any thing that is made from atoms and molecules.( Studios, 1995) .The seven states of matter that I am investigating are Solids, Liquids, Gases, Ionized Plasma, Quark-Gluon Plasma, Bose-Einstein Condensate and Fermionic Condensate.
References (InText)
(Jagranjosh.com 2013)
Refernces
Solid
Solid Definition - Chemistry Glossary Definition of Solid. 2013. Solid Definition - Chemistry Glossary Definition of Solid. [ONLINE] Available at: http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/a/soliddefinition.htm. [Accessed 11 June 2013].

solid - definition of solid by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.. 2013. solid - definition of solid by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/solid. [Accessed 11 June 2013].

What is solid? - Definition from WhatIs.com. 2013. What is solid? - Definition from WhatIs.com. [ONLINE] Available at: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/solid. [Accessed 11 June 2013].

Particles of a Solid - YouTube. 2013. Particles of a Solid - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 June 2013].

Liquids
liquid - definition of liquid by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.. 2013. liquid - definition of liquid by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/liquid. [Accessed 17 June 2013].

What Happens to Particles When They Are Heated? - Ask.com . 2013. What Happens to Particles When They Are Heated? - Ask.com . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ask.com/question/what-happens-to-particles-when-you-heat-them-up. [Accessed 17 June 2013].

Particles in a liquid - YouTube. 2013. Particles in a liquid - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 June 2013].

Gases
Chem4Kids.com: Matter: Gases. 2013. Chem4Kids.com: Matter: Gases. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_gas.html. [Accessed 18 June 2013].

What Happens When Gas Is Heated? | eHow. 2013. What Happens When Gas Is Heated? | eHow. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ehow.com/info_8174546_happens-gas-heated.html. [Accessed 18 June 2013].

Particles in a gas - YouTube. 2013. Particles in a gas - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 17 June 2013].

States of Matter. 2013. States of Matter. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states.html. [Accessed 18 June 2013]. (Used for all Three)

Ionized Plasma
Pluto.space.swri.edu. n.d.. Plasma: the 4th State of Matter (cont'd). [online] Available at: http://pluto.space.swri.edu/image/glossary/plasma2.html [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].

Dictionary.com. 2013. the definition of plasma. [online] Available at: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/plasma [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].

Answers.com. 1913. Is lightning a plasma?. [online] Available at: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Is_lightning_a_plasma [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].

Quark-Gluon Plasma
LiveScience.com. 1997. Hottest Particle Soup May Reveal Secrets of Primordial Universe. [online] Available at: http://www.livescience.com/22320-quark-gluon-plasma-big-bang-conditions.html [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013]

Futurity.org. 2013. Futurity.org – Tiny droplets ‘flow’ like quark-gluon plasma. [online] Available at: http://www.futurity.org/science-technology/tiny-droplets-‘flow’-like-quark-gluon-plasma/ [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].

TheFreeDictionary.com. 2013. quark-gluon plasma. [online] Available at: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/quark-gluon+plasma [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].


Bose Enstein Condenste
wiseGEEK. 2001. What is Bose Einstein Condensate? (with picture). [online] Available at: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-bose-einstein-condensate.htm [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].

There's a fifth state of matter where the atoms are colder than a solid, they stop moving and simultaneously exist everywhere at once. - OMG Facts. 2013. There's a fifth state of matter where the atoms are colder than a solid, they stop moving and simultaneously exist everywhere at once. - OMG
Facts. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.omg-facts.com/Sex/Theres-A-Fifth-State-Of-Matter-Where-The/41667. [Accessed 18 June 2013].

Studios, A. 1995. Chem4Kids.com: Matter: Bose-Einstein Condensates. [online] Available at: http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_becondensate.html [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].

The Times Of India. 2008. What is the fifth state of matter?. [online] Available at: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2007-07-29/open-space/27955144_1_bose-einstein-condensate-matter-indian-physicist [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].


Fermionic Condenstate
TheFreeDictionary.com. 2013. Fermionic condensate. [online] Available at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Fermionic+condensate [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].

Physicsworld.com. 2013. Fermionic condensate makes its debut - physicsworld.com. [online] Available at: http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2004/jan/28/fermionic-condensate-makes-its-debut [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].

Jagranjosh.com. 2013. Fermionic Condensates. [online] Available at: http://www.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/fermionic-condensates-1292056740-1 [Accessed: 18 Jun 2013].
A solid is a substance that is firm and stable in shape. It has a definite shape, size and volume . An example of a Solid is a tree. (Ph.D. n.d.)
The particles in a solid are in a fixed position and vibrate.The particles are packed much closer together than particles of a liquid or gas. (Chem.purdue.edu n.d.
)
When a solid is heated, the atoms or molecules gain kinetic energy . If the temperature becomes sufficiently high, this kinetic energy overcomes the forces that hold the atoms or molecules in place. Then the solid may become a liquid or a gas eg. Ice to Water to Steam. (Whatis.techtarget.com 2013)
A liquid is a substance that has a reediness to flow with little or no tendency. It does resist change of size but doesn’t resist change of shape. An example of a liquid is Water. (TheFreeDictionary.com n.d.
The particles in a liquid are close together with no arrangement/position. They move around, vibrate and slide past each other. A liquid particles are closer together that gas but are further apart than a solid. (Chem.purdue.edu n.d.)

When a liquid is heated, it evaporates into a gas. This is because when the particles are heated they gain kinetic energy and become further apart. (Ask.com n.d.)
A Gas is a substance that is air-like which expands into freely into space. Gases can be compressed easily because their particles are far apart. An example of a Gas is Hydrogen which is the most common gas in our universe.
(Studios 1997)
The particles in a gas move freely in and have no bonds/arrangement. Gases fill all containers no matter what size or shape. The molecules spread out and fill the container evenly. A gases particles are far apart from each other and flow easily. (Studios 1997), (Chem.purdue.edu n.d.)
When a gas is heated, it is turned into an ionized plasma because electrons are forcibly removed from it. (Cooper n.d.)
Ionized Plasma is the result of gas going through ionization. This is predominantly caused by heating, and results in the forcible removal of all the atoms electrons. (Pluto.space.swri.edu n.d.)
Ionization is when a gas has all is electrons forcibly removed by heat or other forces to create positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons. (Pluto.space.swri.edu n.d.)
It is estimated that 99% of the matter in the observable universe is in the plasma state. Stars,the sun and planets all consist of plasma. Lighting is a formed when static electricty from the clouds goes through the of ionized plasma on Earth. (Pluto.space.swri.edu n.d.), (Answers.com 1913)
Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose first predicted the existence of this fifth state of matter in 1924. Einstein expounded on Bose's ideas about the behavior of light when acting as waves and particles The first Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) ever produced in an experiment occurred much later, in 1995. (wiseGEEK 2001)
The BEC is created at super low temperatures. At zero Kelvin (absolute zero) all molecular motion stops. Scientists figured out a way to get a temperature only a few billionths of a degree above absolute zero. When temperatures get that low, atoms start to clump together forming BEC by condensation with a few special elements, (rubidium (Rb) was Used). (Studios 1995)
In conclusion I have learnt about many different states in which matter can be. Although I haven't investigated all the states of matter that exist in Earth, the ones I did investigated all have different properties and are made in different ways. Although they are different they all provide a role in the existence in Earth .Some of these states are highly rare and dangerous, but in this investigation it has allowed me to be aware of them.
A fermionic condensate is a super-fluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures. It has similar properties to a liquid and a gas but however superfluids possess some properties that do not appear in ordinary matter. (Jagranjosh.com 2013)
It is closely related to the Bose-Einstein condensate. Deborah Jin, Rudolf Grimm and Wolfgang Kettlerle who were the first to create fermionic condensate managed to coax fermionic atoms into forming molecular bosons, which lead to Bose-Einstein Condensation. Unlike the Bose- Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates are formed using fermions instead of bosons. (Jagranjosh.com 2013)
False colour images of a condensate formed from pairs of fermion potassium atoms. Higher areas indicate a greater density of atoms. Images from left to right correspond to the increasing strength of attraction between the atoms. (Physicsworld.com 2013) )
Protons or neutrons are formed of three quarks bound together by gluons. When high temperatures are added, protons and neutrons and other forms of hadronic matter "melt" into a hot, dense liquid of free quarks and gluons, That liquid is Quark-Gluon Plasma. (LiveScience.com 1997)
Quark-Gluon Plasma is made at temperatures 4 trillion and 6 trillion degrees Celsius, it is the hottest thing ever made on earth, and is about 100,000 times hotter than the center of the sun. (LiveScience.com 1997)
Bose-Einstein Condensate is made under rare circumstances when a solid can be cooled to form a Bose-Einstein condensate. This occurs as the temperature approaches absolute zero. This is when atoms lose all their energy and begin to clump together forming BEC. The fifth state of matter was predicted much before it was made by Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose. (wiseGEEK 2001), (Studios 1995)
Freezing
Fusion
Condensation
Vaporization
Sublimation
Deposition
De-Ionization
Ionization
Heat and Pressure
Cooling
Super-Fluids
Full transcript