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Africa and World Affairs

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Oriane Adeye Oni

on 11 December 2014

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Transcript of Africa and World Affairs

The DRC uses the Congolese franc for currency. It is regarded widely as potentially the most mineral rich country in the world, however its citizens are some of the poorest in the world, with the world's second lowest GDP. The DRC was ranked one of the 20 worst countries on the Corruption Perception Index. The economy revolves around mining; its untapped mineral deposits are estimated being worth $24 trillion. The DRC has 30% of the world's diamond reverses an 70% of its coltan.
The DRC has over 200 ethnic groups, but is primarily Bantu. The Bantu make up 45% of the overall population. In 2009, the US estimated the population to be around 66 million, but the 2013 estimated population is over 75 million. The DRC is the most populous Francophone country in the world, but 242 lanuages are spoken throughout, with four having the status of national languages.
Africa and World Affairs
Independence Era
Most African countries took their independence around the 1960s
Apartheid South Africa will not gain independence before 1994
For late comers like Mozambique, Angola, Zimbabwe the fight for independence was extremely violent because a great number of white settlers in these colonies
Africa's total population is around 1 billion .The combined population of the US, Europe and China is over 2.5 billion

The MoLibrahim Index of African Governance
Established in 2007, "annual assessment of governance in every African country"(IIAG)
African countries are ranked on four categories: Safety & Rule of Law, Participation & Human Rights, Sustainable Economic Opportunity &Human Dvlpment
Africa as a whole scored 51% on overall governance
Mauritius, Bostwana, cape Verde, Seychelles and South Africa ranked highest with scores over 70%
But 23 countries of the countinent ranks below 50 percent on this index
The Central African Republic, Eritrea, The Democratic Republic of Congo and Somalia have the lowest scores on the index. Somalia is at 8% and the other 3 around 30%
Success stories
The world's largest church: The Basilica of Our Lady of Peace, Yamoussokro
Largest Economy in French West Africa from 1960s to early 1990
National soccer team composed of some of the best soccer players worldwide

The 2002 Civil War
1999 Coup by Guei Robert. Gbagbo Ouattara Guei coalition
26% of the population was of foreign origin, particularly from Burkina Faso, a poorer country to the north.
Issue of Ivoirity
First Ivorian Civil War, September 19, 2002.Guei was killed, the country remained split in two, with a rebel-held north and a government-held south. hundreds were killed and tortured, women raped
On 4 March 2007, a peace agreement was signed between the government and the New Forces in Burkina Faso.
New Forces leader Guillaume Soro was subsequently appointed prime minister.
Despite the peace accord and the presence of U.N. peacekeepers, the country remains in crisis
2010-2011 P Unrests
After a disputed November election, both Gbagbo and Ouattara claimed the presidency.
Two presidencies for one sole state
Gbagbo remained in the presidential palace and rule most of the South
Ouattara claimed the presidency and had control of the North and the West.Fierce fighting erupted for control of Abidjan.
Masquerade: Gbagbo would give an order and on the next day Ouattara would command the opposite
France, the African Union, Russia
Struggle for democracy or struggle for COCOA?

Located on the West Coast of Africa, bound by Liberia and Guinea to the west, Mali and Burkina Faso to the north, Ghana to the east and the Atlantic Ocean to the south.
Capital City: Yamoussokro
Biggest City: Abidjan
World's leading producer of Cocoa
Presidential System, Republic
Independence: August 7, 1960
Official Language: French but over 60 local languages
The population includes 30,000 Lebanese and 45,000 French
Ivory Coast
Currency: West African CFA (XOF) Demonym: Ivorian
President: Alassane Ouattara,educated in the US at Uni of Penns.
Prime Minister: Daniel Kablan Duncan
Population: 20,617, 068 (2009)
2012 GDP- Total: $40. 348 billion. Per Capita: $1,726
Corruption Index: -1.14 , Rank 130/176. Point estimates range from about -2.5 to 2.5. Higher values correspond to better governance outcomes.
Human Development Index: 0.432- low, Ranked 168th
MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture, Food Processing, Forestry, Leather Goods, Mining, Petroleum Refining, Textiles.
Les elephants
Les Elephants Cont.
Composed of world class players such as Didier Drogba,former player of Chelsea; Kolo Toure player of Liverpool and Yaya Toure, of Manchester
Qualify almost always for the African Cup of Nations, winners in 1992
Qualified for three consecutive World Cups, 2006 2010 and 2014

Guillaume Ngefa, the deputy human rights director at the U.N. mission in Ivory Coast, blamed many of the civil ar deaths on forces loyal to Alassane Ouattara, the man recognized by the United Nations and other global powers as the rightful president of Ivory Coast.
President Laurent Gbagbo, ousted in April 2011 by French-backed forces, is currently jailed in The Hague, charged with four counts of crimes against humanity
However so far the court has found no evidence of these accusations
Pro Gbagbo militants forced to exil, many killed, tortured or thrown in jail, Limited freedom of speech
Corruption, no opposition allowed, unemployment
The MoLibrahim Index Cont.
There has been overall governance progress since 2000.
Only 43% of people living in Africa live in a country which has shown overall governance improvement since 2010.
Whilst all African countries have improved in the Human Development category since 2000, only 21.1% of Africans live in a country that has improved in Safety & Rule of Law, 47.5% in Participation & Human Rights and 85.7% in Sustainable Economic Opportunity.
Significant Movers on the index years 2000-2012
Liberia, increase of 24.8%
Angola, increase of 18.1%
Sierra Leone, 14.8%
Rwanda, 10.9%
Burundi, 8.8%
Madagascar, decreased (-11. 7%)
Eritrea, decreased (-5.5%)
Africa and The United Nations
The African group in the United Nations is composed of 54 member states, largest regional group of the UN.
It has 3 non-permanent seats on the Security Council, 14 seats on the United Nations Economic and Social Council and 13 seats on the United Nations Human Rights Council.
The group is eligible for having its nationals elected to the post of president of the United Nations General Assembly in years ending with 4 and 9; Ali Treki, Libya was elected to this position in 2009
Other International Organizations
42 African countries members of the WTO
Most countries are members of the World Health Organization

Foreign Aid
Receives various types of aids from the IMF, the World Bank, the UN and its various agencies including the WTO, the West, South Asia, Russia and even South America.
Controversy in AIDS- Corruption, increase the external debt, "the hand that gives is the hand that rule", The NESTLE foundation scandal in Southern Africa
Debt relief is being addressed by some international institutions in the interests of supporting economic development in Africa.
During Barack Obama's visit to Africa in July 2013, he announced a $7 billion plan to further develop infrastructure and work more intensively with African heads of state
Post independence Conflicts
Although the new African leaders had visions for their countries, there were many things out of their control:
drought and famine in east and southern Africa.
plummeting commodity prices for a wide range of products, including agricultural and mineral products, on the world market.
A leap in oil prices in the 1970's for non-oil producing countries.
mounting debts resulting from money borrowed.
weak currencies many of which became non-convertible.
pressure from the IMF and World Bank, forcing governments in the 1980's to remove subsidies on the sort of products which the urban populations of Africa relied on, most importantly sugar and petrol.
The Republic of Rwanda
A sovereign state in central and east Africa with a presidential system of government
Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, and Twa 1%
Hunter and gatherers settled the area in the stone and iron ages. The population started out as small clans and later grew into kingdoms. The Kingdom of Rwanda dominated the area from the mid 18th century with the Tutsi kings conquering the people and enacting anti-Hutu policies. In 1844, Germany colonized Rwanda as part of German East Africa; however, Belgium invaded the country in 1916 during the first World War. In 1959, the Hutus revolted against the Tutsi in order to create a Hutu dominated state in 1962. Years after this, the Tutsi led a Rwandan Patriotic Front in starting a civil war in 1990 which led to the 1994 genocide in which the Hutu extremists killed an estimated 500,000 to 1 million Tutsi and Hutu. The genocide was ended with a military victory by the RPF.
Their economy suffered greatly during the genocide but has been growing since then.

War in Darfur began in February 2003 when the SLM/A and JEM took up arms against the Sudanese government. The government armed Janjaweed militia and orchestrated a violent genocide of non-Arab Africans in Darfur, until the International Criminal Court brought charges against President Omar al-Bashir. A tentative peace agreement was reached in 2010, but not before an estimated three hundred thousand lives were lost.
The African Union
African federation consisting of all of Africa's states except Morocco. Formed on 26 June 2001. Headquaters- Addis Ababa. But officially established on 9 July 2002 as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU)
From role model to civil war: Ivory Coast
Africa in Brief
Area: 11,608,000 sq. miles
Population: 1,100,000,000(2012)
54 sovereign states
GDP for each individual state varies a lot
Over 2000 languages spoken but less than 30 official languages including French, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic and Swahili
Religions: Islam and Christianity most common(over 70%), followed by traditional religions(over 15%), Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism. Syncretism also very common
About fifteen countries in the continent are experiencing some kind of political unrest
Physical features
All types of terrain and climate can be found on the Continent
Glaciers on Mt. Kilimandjaro, Mt. Kenya and Morroco's Atlas
World's largest desert, tropical forests,hot coastal towns and chilly highland areas
The Southern tip of the continent supports a population of penguins
The Northern edge of the continent enjoys a Mediterranean climate
The spread of deadly diseases HIV and malaria, corrupt governments, failed central planning, limited access to healthcare, lack of access to foreign capital, and frequent ethnic and military conflict, from guerrilla warfare to genocide.
Malnutrition and inadequate water supply and sanitation affect a large proportion of the people on this continent.
36% of the people in Africa live with less than a dollar a day, BUT!

Literacy rate: Zimbabwe-90.7% Uganda 66.8% Burkina Faso 21.8%
In 1990 the adult literacy rate in all of Africa was 52%. In 2008 it was 63%
Rich in natural resources yet the world's poorest continent.
In early History, Africa's economy was diverse, driven by extensive trade routes developed between rich and powerful kingdoms.
Today, the economy of Africa consists mainly of the trade, agriculture, and human resources.
In recent years, Data suggest parts of the continent are now experiencing fast growth.

After an initial rebound from the 2009 world economic crisis, Africa’s economy was undermined by the Arab uprisings. The continent’s growth fell back from 5% in 2010 to 3.4% in early 2011. In 2012, it went up to 4.5% and is expected to increase to 4.8% in 2013.

Intra-African trade has been slowed by protectionist policies among countries and regions

Trade varies from one country to another. Countries such as South Africa represent the higher side of the spectrum whereas regions such as Burundi have the least trade volumes.

Botswana and South Africa are two of the biggest exporting countries in Africa. South Africa is the world’s biggest producer of gold as well as diamonds.
Main Trade export Partners:
The European Union, the United States, Japan, China, India and Brazil.

Exports and Imports
Palm oil
Gold and diamonds
Precious metals
Africa and China
12.5% of Africa's exports are to China, and 4% are to India.
Recently, China has built increasingly stronger ties with African nations. In 2007, Chinese companies invested a total of US$1 billion in Africa.
China is also providing Chinese contract laborers to most countries in Africa
Many Chinese start to immigrate to Africa and compete with local African Busness Owners
Many Chinatowns in the biggest African cities and even in some small towns
A bright future for the African Economy?
The trend indicates that a fundamental change is occurring in Africa.
"For the first time in about almost 30 years we've seen a large number of African countries that have begun to show sustained economic growth at rates that are similar to those in the rest of the developing world and actually today exceed the rate of growth in most of the advanced economies"(John Page, World Bank's Chief economist for Africa)
However, ongoing investment is needed to sustain long-term development on the continent.
Contemporary Africa
Colonizers arrived in Africa as early as 500 B.C., and lead to the creation of great cities like Carthage. This past colonization was very different than what occurred in the 18th and 19th known as the Scramble for Africa. There was little development done, as the great powers carving out territories were interested only in the potential resources they could provide. During this time Europe added almost 9 million square miles (nearly 1/5 of the globe) in colonized land. It wasn't until the end of WWII that a period of decolonization began.
Life expectancy rates
The Congo Free State was found in 1877 and lasted until 1906 at which time it was renamed the Belgian Congo and became a colony of Belgium. The Congolese army fought alongside them during WWII and the Belgium presence lasted until 1960. By 1960, a growing nationalist movement lead forcries of independence. Zaire was founded in 1971 and lasted until 1997, at which point the country fell into civil wars.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo's national flag
It is located on the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west. Most of the people live on the banks of the Nile River as most of the country is made up of the dry Sahara Desert
It is one of the most populated countries in Egypt and the 15th most populated country in the world with 80.72 million people
7.772 million people live in the capital of Cairo
An estimated 3,820 people per square mile inhabit the banks of the Nile river making this area one of the most densely populated parts of the world.
99.6% of the population consist of native Egyptians that speak modern Egyptian Arabic
Despite its central equatorial location, the DRC has a very high precipition rate and experiences frewuent thunderstorms. This helps supprt the Congo Rainforest, which is second in size only to the Amazon. There is a great mix of rolling savannahs and massive plateaus and mountains. The climate is largely tropical. The DRC has many rivers as well, deriving its name from the largest one, the Congoriver.
Economic Outlook
GDP: 257.3 billion
GDP per capita: 6,600
GDP growth: 2.2%
HDI: 0.662
20% are below the poverty line
unemployment rate: 20.5%
Gross Domestic Debt: 217.8 billion-87.5% of their GDP
Gross External Debt: 38.8 billion
Machinery and Equipment
Wood products

Main import partners
United States
The culture of the DRC is incredibly complex due to its huge amount of diversity and hundreds of ethnic groups. The Congo is known for its art and sui generis music, a blend of ethnic and Cuban music.
Crude oil and Petroleum products
Metal Products
Agricultural goods
Main Export Partners
United States
Saudi Arabia
$28.37 billion
literacy rate: 72%
infant mortality rate: 18%
life expectancy: 73

89% of the population are Muslim
10% are Oriental Orthodox Christians
1% are Jewish, Atheist, and Agnostic

Countries by GDP; the yellow is below $400
Continuously inhabited since 10th millennium BC
A unified kingdom was founded in 3150 BC by King Menes, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia
The New Kingdom: 1550–1070 BC began with the Eighteenth Dynasty Egypt became an international power then. The most well known Pharaohs are from this time: Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II
The DRC made a transitional constitution in 2003, which finally helped create a stable presidential democratic assembly. The constitutional was made final in 2006 and became known as the Constitution of the Third Republic. However the DRC is still reeling from the effects of Mobutu's thirty year rule and the corruption throughout it. The political landscape is beginning to stablize, but the constant conflicts with warlords slows things down. President Kabila is on the right track, however, with his efforts to reduce corruption and violence..
History Continued
Egypt was long fought over by many countries including: France, Turkey, Britain, and Iran
After the 1952 Revolution by the Free Officers Movement, the rule of Egypt went into military hands. On June 18th 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared. General Muhammad Naguib was the first President of the Republic.
Capital: Monrovia
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
- President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, elected in 2006
Established by the American Colonization Society 1822 - Independence 26 July 1847
GDP - Per capita $436
Used the United States dollar as its currency from 1943 until 1982
Formal employment rate: 15% Human Development Index: 0.388 low 174th in the World of the 178 countries in the wold
Liberia scored a 3.3 on a scale from 10 (highly clean) to 0 (highly corrupt) on the 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index
87th of 178 countries worldwide and 11th of 47 in Sub-Saharan
economy has depended heavily on foreign aid, foreign direct investment and exports of natural resources such as iron ore, rubber and timber.
Liberia's external debt was estimated in 2006 at approximately $4.5 billion, 800% of GDP

The United Nations Enviroment Programme (UNEP) established a national program in 2008 to help stablize the country and create sustainable development, while still protecting the environment which can be ravaged by the explosion of strip mining that has occured over the years.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
Corruption Perception Index
Human Rights
Under Mubarak's government:
Human Rights Watch's 2006 report on Egypt suggested human rights violations, such as routine torture, arbitrary detentions and trials before military and state security courts. In 2007, Amnesty International released a report alleging that Egypt had become an international center for torture, where other nations send suspects for interrogation, as part of the War on Terror

2011: widespread protests began against Mubarak's government.
On February 11, 2011, Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo and the Egyptian military assumed the power to govern.
Mohamed Morsi was elected president on 24 June 2012 and was soon thrown out due to violent battles and protests between his supporters and opponents
On July 3, 2013, Adly Mansour was sworn in as president over the new government following the removal of Morsi.
Felix houphouet Boigny
Félix Houphouët-Boigny ( 18 October 1905 – 7 December 1993), affectionately called Papa Houphouët or Le Vieux , was the first President of Côte d'Ivoire. Originally a tribal chief, he worked as a doctor, an administrator of a plantation, and a union leader, before being elected to the French Parliament and serving in a number of ministerial positions in the French government.

From the 1940s until his death, he played a leading role in the decolonization of Africa and in his country's politics.
Major exports: Cocoa beans, Petroleum oils, Natural rubber
Major imports: Medicaments, Electronics, Frozen fish, Petroleum oils, Cars

Major trade partners (exports): United States (11%), Netherlands (10%), France (8%), Germany (8%), Ghana (6%)
Major trade partners (imports): France (31%), China (27%), Brazil (4%), United States (4%), Germany (3%)

TheFélix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize
To establish his legacy as a man of peace, Houphouët-Boigny created an award in 1989, sponsored by UNESCO and funded entirely by extra-budgetary resources provided by the Félix-Houphouët-Boigny Foundation, to honor those who search for peace.
The prize was first awarded in 1991 to Nelson Mandela, president of the African National Congress, and Frederik Willem de Klerk, president of the Republic of South Africa, and has been awarded each year since, with the exception of 2001 and 2004.

President Boigny at an official vist in Washington, May 1962
Machinery and equipment
Petroleum products
Scientific instruments
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