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Asset Maintenance

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Nicole Tedesco

on 14 March 2016

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Transcript of Asset Maintenance

CPP20511 Certificate II
Fire Inspection and Testing

Introduction Brief
Alarms, exits & emergency assembly area
First aid & fire extinguishers
Nominated course First Aider/Medic
Hydration requirements
Location of toilets & smoking area
Mobile phones
Reporting incidents/accidents
Participant Responsibilities
YOU, as a course participant are responsible for:
JHAs, Work Instructions and Take 5s
Company and legislative standards
Assisting others
Maintaining positive demeanor
PPE Requirements
PPE will be required to be worn at all times applicable to the tasks and location of the training

Minimum PPE will consist of standard industry requirements PLUS gloves for practical activities

Other PPE requirements will be addressed as the need arises
Competency Requirements
Assessment for this unit of competency shall be via:

Verbal questioning
Written Assessments
Practical Assessments
No pre-requisites

Course Outline - Day One
Safe work practices and procedures
Provide effective customer service
Manual handling
Identify fire protection equipment
Theory of fire
Use of fire extinguishers
Maintaining quality of work and promoting continuous improvement
Use Australian Standards for FFE

Section One
Maintain quaility of work and promote continuous improvement
Provide effective client service
Participate in workplace safety arrangements
Quality Work Outcomes:
Every workplace must perform to a certain standard. A quality work outcome is the completion of a task or job to a high degree of excellence.
Work Quality:
The systems and procedures put in place by an organisation to achieve products and services that are of high quality.
Each person in the workplace is responsible for making sure the work they perform is completed to a high standard.
Quality Outcome:
Being able ro work efficiently and safely as part of a team is important to achieving an outcome that is satisfactory. With each person doing their job properly and working together, a high standard will be a lot easier to achieve.
Quality Work Outcomes
Includes certain guidelines such as:

finishing tasks on time
working to get the job done right the first time
assessing your own work outcomes following workplace policy and procedures concerning wastage

6 key elements used to help produce a quality work outcome:

1. produce quality outcomes the first time
2. report problems or unsatisfactory conditions
3. make sure you understand your instructions and the standard of quality expected
4. report work outcomes as required
5. admit mistakes and learn from them
6. work in a team environment

Workplace Communications
Quality work relies greatly on the accuracy of information given.
Speaking clearly, directly and listening carefully to instructions and information is very important.
Work Instructions
Work instructions usually include the following:

who authorises instructions, performance indicators or key points and safety requirements
when task is to be completed
tools and equipment needed
task steps
reporting procedure
One way of maintaining quality is to develop a checklist for your approach to a task.

You can add any further issues you think you should check.
Task Management
There will be times when you will be given different tasks and be expected to work in areas you are not used to.

It is important you are prepared for this and that you can:

manage your time
prioritise and plan your work tasks
refine your job techniques
ask questions if you are not sure of something
use your initiative to get the job finished

Problem Solving
When problems arise in the workplace they are usually the result of products or services not meeting the set quality standards.

Over 80% of the problems result from five common causes:

1. poor training
2. poor goods and services
3. poor work instructions
4. failure to provide accurate information
5. poor plant/equipment/machinery condition
Quality System
Quality System
To achieve a high standard of quality, a workplace will have a system where the quality standards required by the customer are consistently met.

A quality system puts in place a framework or process to achieve required standards.

Workplace procedures are applied, monitored and the outcomes reported to work out whether standards are being met.
A number of terms are used like Quality Assurance, Total Quality Management and Quality Control. Although all these terms are concerned with quality they have different meanings.

Quality Assurance (QA)
This usually means standards, procedures and work instructions are written in a quality manual with a guarantee that these are followed, to make sure stated quality is achieved

Total Quality Management (TQM)
This system is based on continuous improvement. it is a system where everyone in the organisation is responsible for the quality output of their work

Quality Control (QC)
A set of processes to measure the quality of goods and services

Procedures are a set of steps describing how a particular process must be performed.

Safety is a major concern when producing a quality outcome from a job.

Work instructions and procedures will take into account safety legislation.

This is a key part of achieving a quality outcome.

Transfer of heat through a solid material

Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Water
Fire Development/Growth
Fires and the sun produce radiated heat.
Travels in straight lines.

‘Hot Air (and liquid) Rise’

Heat Transfer
Fire is a chemical reaction that gives off large amounts of heat and light.

It takes place between fuel and oxygen

The chemical reaction of fire is started and kept going by the presence of heat.

A fire will keep burning until all the available fuel and/or oxygen is used up.

What is Fire?
Together they produce a Chemical Reaction
completing the ‘Fire Tetrahedron’

Fire is made up of 3 core elements:



What is Fire
Demonstrate first attack Firefighting Equipment
Methods of Extinguishment



Remove all oxygen

Remove the fuel

Remove the heat

Interfere with the chemical reaction

Assessment Three
Practical Session

Fire Extinguishers
Level 4 testing
Fire Blankets
Fire Hose Reels
Landing Valves
Halon withdrawal

Banned Federally since 31st December 1995
Some Exemptions (Aviation / Marine / Specialist Installations)
Is an Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS)
Unlawful to discharge into atomsphere (unless used on fire in exemption area)

Foam is a blanketing and cooling agent that is produced by the combination of three materials:

Foam concentrate

Foam concentrate, when properly proportioned with water and expanded with air through an application device, will form a 'finished foam' appropriate for the intended application.

Two common types of foam concentrate are:

Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)
A combination of fluorinated and hydrocarbon surfactants

Concentrates are blended with special additives to enhance the performance against hydrocarbon fuel fires.
Available in 1%, 3% and 6% concentrates
Carbon dioxide (C02) is a gaseous extinguishing agent stored at high pressure in a liquid state. CO2 works by displacing the air to produce an atmosphere deficient of oxygen. Because carbon dioxide is a natural component of the atmosphere, and the quantities used for fire protection, it is considered environmentally acceptable.

The main components of BE powders can be:

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHC03)

Potassium bicarbonate (KHC03 )

Potassium sulphate (K2S04)

Potassium chloride (KCl)

The extinguishing efficiency of powders is dependent on two factors:

The chemical make-up of the powder

The specific surface area

Easy and safe to use

Discharge is controllable, i.e. once you release the trigger the discharge stops

The pressure gauge tells you at a glance if the pressure is at the recommended level. If the gauge is:
Too low; it could have a leak or have been used.
Too high; it could have been over charged or in the case of powdered extinguishing agent, different powders may have been mixed causing a rise in pressure.

Advantages of Stored Pressure
Conduct “Hot Fire” practical session.

Complete all site permits (Hot works/LG Permits to burn) and associated risk assessments
(Take 5’s/JHA) for task

Types Fire Extinguishers
Fire Extinguishers
Size and type of fire (what is burning? can you fight the fire with an extinguisher?)

Escape route


Wind direction (fire spread, smoke, may assist with throw of medium)

Topography (physical environment)

Hazards present (electricity)

Anticipate reaction of agent (foam will initially flare up, as will water on plastic

Select correct extinguishing agent/s (prevent re-ignition)
Currently, there is no universal type of fire extinguisher that covers all classes of fire and all types of fires within each class.
Why is there more than one type of portable fire extinguisher?
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide (or CO2) works as a smothering agent for extinguishing small Class B fires and fires involving electrical equipment ( Class E).

Vaporising liquids
Vaporising liquids are chemical chain reaction inhibiting and smothering agents for extinguishing Class B and Class A fires and those involving electrical equipment.

Wet Chemical
Wet chemical is a special smothering agent used to extinguish Class F (hot fat) fires such as those occurring in food deep fryers…

Sand and Earth
In the absence of other extinguishing agents, sand and earth can be used to extinguish most classes of fire. When used on metal fires it must be completely dry
Fire Fighting Agents
Fire Fighting Agents
Water is a very effective cooling agent for extinguishing Class A fires, but water can be dangerous to use on other classes of fire.

Foam is used as a smothering and cooling agent for extinguishing Class B fires. Foam is also effective on Class A fires.

Extinguishing Powders
Extinguishing powder is effective as a smothering and chemical chain reaction inhibiting agent for extinguishing Class A,B,E fires…

Note: There are different types of Powder i.e. BE or AB:E
Stage One: Proportioning
In this stage, the right amount of concentrate is mixed with a known amount of water. This means that the two components are mixed in the correct proportions.

For example, 1%, 3% or 6% foam solution, which means 1, 3 or 6 parts of concentrate to every 99, 97 or 94 parts of water respectively.

9 Litre Extinguisher approx. 8.4 litre water : 600ml Foam

Stage Two: Aspiration
The second and final stage involves mixing the foam solution (concentrate and water) with air to create finished foam - the white bubbly frothy stuff that puts out fires!

Air is introduced into the foam solution at the end of the hose assembly. A specially designed nozzle mixes the air and foam solution to create the finished foam.
Leaves no residue.
Is preferred for use in electronic environments and equipment.
Is effective on fires in locations, such as, semi-sealed enclosures that cannot be readily penetrated by non-gaseous extinguishing agents.

Has very poor knockdown qualities.
The discharge range is short.
Can be totally ineffective in the presence of strong air movement.
Produces a loud noise during discharge that might frighten inexperienced users.
Discharging CO2 may produce a static electrical charge.


Quick knockdown
- Dry powder, when correctly applied and at the required application rate, has the ability to ensure an initial quick knockdown of the fire.

Good on running fuel fires
- Owing to its fire extinguishing action, dry powder, when used in conjunction with foam sprays, can be extremely effective when used on running fuel fires.

Non-conductor of electricity
- Dry powder can safely be used at incidents where it is known or suspected that ‘live’ electrical equipment is present.

Creates no thermal shock
- Because the application of dry powder onto hot metal does not cause thermal shock, it is particularly useful for dealing with fires involving undercarriage assemblies.

Good heat shield
- The discharge of dry powder creates an effective shield against radiated heat. In cases where large quantities of powder are discharged, this has the potential to shield surrounding structures and personnel from the damaging effects of the fire.

Wide range of use
– Dry powder extinguishers can be used on class A,B,C,D and E Fires.

Wide temperature range
– Typically can be used between -20oc to +60oc.
Mixing BE and ABE powders in an extinguisher causes the powders to chemically react with each other.

This reaction creates a rise in pressure within the cylinder and can cause an explosion to occur if left for lengthy periods.
Dangers of Mixing BE and ABE Powders
There are two common types of powdered extinguishing agents (also known as dry chemical) used in portable fire extinguishers:

BE - contains powders designed to extinguish flammable liquid fires (Class B) and can be used on fires involving live electrical equipment (Class E).

ABE - contains powders designed to extinguish the two most common types of fire (Class A & Class B – Can also be used on (E)

Water as an extinguishing agent absorbs large quantities of heat and can reduce the fire temperature below the necessary ignition temperature to sustain or start a fire.

When water turns to steam it expands in volume by 1:1700 @100C, thus making it an effective extinguishing agent when used efficiently.

Inexpensive and usually readily available.
Considered to be environmentally friendly.

Only suitable for Class A fires, and may be dangerous when used on other classes of fire.
Must never be used on fires involving live electrical equipment.
This type of extinguishing agent usually contains some form of additive, which may be:

Corrosion inhibitors;
used to help prevent the cylinder from rusting or corroding.

Freezing point depressants;
used in extreme cold weather or low temperature areas.

Wetting agents;
used to improve the ability of water to penetrate more quickly and easily.

Characteristics of Extinguishing Agents
1. Squeeze Trigger (3)
2. Valve opened in head assembly (2)
3. Pressure of the expellant forces extinguishing agent up syphon tube (1) through the head assembly (2) and along discharge hose (4)
4. Agent discharges to atmosphere (fire)
Expelling Extinguishing Agent
Fire Extinguishers
Personnel and additional extinguishers available for backup

Your safety and the safety of others comes first

If it is unsafe or the right equipment is unavailable – evacuate ASAP

Ensure Emergency Services have been advised
Fire extinguishers are the most common and visible form of fire protection equipment in the workplace.

All extinguishers and fire blankets must conform to AS/NZS 2444
Since 1999 there has been an agreement to standardize the colour coding scheme for Australian fire extinguishers. However it is still common and acceptable to see and use extinguishers displaying the older colour coding scheme.

Identification of Extinguishers
Bromochlorodiflouromethane is a Freon compound. It is not ozone friendly and does not support life.
Halon - BCF
These powders (e.g., Monnex) have a rapid knockdown capability, which is recommended for areas with a highly flammable liquid fire risk.

The surface area of the powder particles assists in the efficiency of the powdered extinguishing agent.

High Performance Powder
This powder type is designed to effectively extinguish flammable liquid fires (Class B) where it is likely that a quantity of foam compound will also be used to extinguish the fires, i.e. a dual extinguishing agent attack.

Foam Compatible Powder
Never return a used extinguisher back onto ‘hook’ or mounting bracket

Fire Extinguishers
After use:

Lay extinguisher down
Place out of service tag
Advise Supervisor
Repair or replace ASAP
Raise a Incident Report

Squeeze Trigger
Carry Handle
Pull Pin
Pressure Indicator
O-Ring Seal
Neck Ring
Anti-Overfill Device
Discharge Nozzle
Syphon Tube
Support Fitting
Hanging Bracket
Discharge Hose Assembly
Pressure Release
Operating Head
Anti Tamper Seal

Major components of an extinguisher
Section Four
Course Outline – Day 2
Preparation to service fire protection equipment

Fire protection equipment servicing requirements

Smoke detector servicing & installation

Service extinguishers in the workshop

Extinguisher installation

ODS & SGG Agents

Australian Standards

Maintenance of Fire Blankets in the field

Maintenance of Fire Hose Reels in the field

Maintenance of Fire Hydrants in the field

Maintenance of Portable Fire Extinguishers in the field

Replenishment of water and foam portable fire extinguishers

Fire Doors

Thermal Imaging

Evacuation Diagrams

Seals and penetrations
Day 2
Certificate II in Asset Maintenance
(Fire Protection Equipment)

Inspect and test fire hose reels
Conduct routine inspection and testing of fire extinguishers and fire blankets
Inspect, test and maintain fire extinguishers
Inspect, test and maintain delivery lay flat fire hoses

For Class A fire

risks, extinguishers shall be distributed in accordance with Table 4.1.

Notwithstanding the requirements of Table 4.1 , the travel distance from any point to the nearest extinguisher shall be not greater than 15 m.

Where a Class A fire risk involves electrically energized equipment, the extinguisher or another available extinguisher shall have an E classification
Location of Fire Extinguishers
Each day you should check the following

1. Your vehicle for:
Petrol (LPG or diesel)
Electrics (battery, lights, indicators)
Rubber (tyres, drive belts)
Make sure you check your spare wheel as well

2. Any missing tools
3. Wear / damage on tools and personal safety items.
4. Faults with specialist equipment (Scales, gauges, calibrate every 6 months)
5. Stock levels - new products, spare parts.

Service Vehicle Maintenance
Hang extinguisher on bracket and confirm it is secure

Leave customer premises in a clean and tidy condition

Complete and distribute all documentation according to organisational requirements

Installation of a Fire Extinguisher
Measure to determine correct location of hanging bracket.

Remember maximum 1200mm from ground level and extinguisher minimum 100mm off ground.

Installation of a Fire Extinguisher
Obtain all necessary work permits before commencing job.

Consult the Australian Standard to determine where to locate the extinguisher
Installation of a Fire Extinguisher
Office electrical and electronic risks

The maximum distance from an extinguisher's normal location to the risk shall be either
(a) 20 metres, in areas where there is a large density of electrical/electronic equipment (e.g. computer centres, broadcasting studios, telephone exchange equipment rooms and the like); or
(b) 40 metres, in areas where there is a lesser distribution of electrical/electronic equipment (e.g. offices using computers and photocopiers).

Location of Fire Extinguishers
Six Monthly…………….Level 1

Yearly……………………..Level 2

Five – Yearly…………..Level 4

After Any Usage…....Level 5

Frequency and Level of Testing
Extinguisher maintenance tests which can be carried out on site

All extinguisher types:

Involving Levels 1, 2 and 4 inspection items
Replacement of any parts not involving a pressure test or recharge
A leak test if a leak is suspected

Water and foam extinguishers:

Levels 1 to 5, which includes discharge, recharging and leak testing.

Extinguisher Maintenance
Decide on appropriate fasteners for wall type.

Before drilling into wall, check for hidden services or utilities.

Fix bracket to wall
Installation of a Fire Extinguisher
Fix sign to wall with suitable adhesive

Measure to determine location of Extinguisher Sign.
Minimum 2000mm off ground

Installation of a Fire Extinguisher
Cooking oils and fats

An extinguisher shall be located between 2 and 20 m from the risk.
Where a fire extinguisher is being selected to control fires involving cooking oils and fats, an extinguisher with an F classification and rating applicable to the surface area of the hazard shall be provided and shall be the extinguisher closest to the risk.
Location of Fire Extinguishers
Location of Fire Extinguishers
Significant switchboards

An extinguisher shall be located between 2 and 20 m from any significant switchboard.
A 5 kg carbon dioxide extinguisher, or another type of extinguisher having a minimum classification of IA:E and fitted with a hose, shall be provided and shall be the extinguisher closest to the switchboard.

Signs and Fixings
100mm min.
1200mm max.

2000mm min.

As per AS2444

Identification and Location Signage
Australian Standards
The Fire Protection Industry (ODS & SGG) Board has developed a Code of Practice for those who manufacture, service, install and decommission fire-fighting equipment using ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and synthetic greenhouse gases (SGG).

This Code of Practice applies to ODG & SGG extinguishing agents including halons, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), that are subject to controls under the Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Act 1989.

Code of Practice
There are three categories of Extinguishing Agent Handling Licences (EAHLs) available:

Trainee - The Fire Protection Industry Board, can issue this type of licence to a person who is working under the supervision of a holder of a Qualified Persons’ Licence

Experienced Person - someone who is relatively new to working with prescribed extinguisher agents, but regards them self as experienced in the fire protection industry

Qualified Person - someone who has been working with prescribed extinguisher agents for several years or has completed the required units of competency for the category of licence

ODS & SGG Licenses
Preventing emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and synthetic greenhouse gases (SGG) by the fire protection industry depends on:

- responsibility of governments to create and implement laws, acts and regulations.

- responsibility of the fire protection industry to create and implement codes of practice and set industry standards.

- responsibility of organisations, companies, and businesses to create and implement policies, guidelines, operating procedures, work instructions and targeted training.

- responsibility of employees, managers and directors to apply policies, guidelines, operating procedures, work instructions and training in the workplace.

The results – our work tasks are changed and the chance of an ODS or SGG emission is reduced.

Preventing ODS & SGG Emissions
A Commonwealth Act of Parliament controls the use of harmful ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and synthetic greenhouse gases (SGG).

This Act, the Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Act 1989 controls the manufacture, import and export of all ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and their synthetic greenhouse gas (SGG) replacements.  

The Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Regulations (1995), implement the Act and authorise the Fire Protection Industry (ODS & SGG) Board to put the regulations into practice throughout the fire protection industry.

ODS & SGG Legislation
ODS SGG Warning Sticker
The following are common examples of materials capable of depleting the ozone layer, increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere or both.

(heptafluoropropane, HFC 227ea); used in chemical storage areas, clean rooms, communications facilities, laboratories, museums, robotics and emergency power facilities

Halon 1211
(BCF); used as a streaming agent – requires a special permit for use in Australia

(HCFC Blend A); used as a total flooding agent – is a replacement for Halon 1301

ODS & SGG Extinguishing Agents
Irregular weather patterns
Changes in food production
Changes in eco systems
Human health
Effects of Global Warming on People
The images above show the Antarctic ozone hole on September 16 (the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer) in the years 1979, 1987, 2006, and 2011. The first two maps are based on data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus-7 satellite. The other two maps are made with data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on the Aura satellite

The ozone layer is like a protective barrier around the earth. When the ozone layer is depleted, this allows harmful ultraviolet radiation to reach the earth’s surface

Ozone-depleting substances (ODS) contribute to this harmful reduction of ozone

Ozone depleting substances (ODS) are regulated by the Australian Government

Even small amounts of ODS emissions can significantly reduce the ozone layer
Ozone-depleting substances (ODS)
Acts and regulations relevant to fire protection equipment include:

The Building Code of Australia (BCA)
The Commonwealth Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Act 1989.
State Building Regulations.
State Regulations including:
Occupational Health & Safety
Dangerous Goods
Acts and Regulations are legal documents. We are bound by law to comply with this legislation.

Fire protection technicians need to be aware of a number of different technical regulations and codes. This helps you to:
Complete work correctly and safely
Offer up-to-date advice to other people, such as building owners.

Acts and Regulations
outline the legal rules (OHS ACT establishes the general duties of employers, employees and others)

provide detailed requirements that the industry must follow

provide guidance on prevention strategies & practical means of achieving compliance in specific areas

Set benchmarks or minimum standards

Provide detailed information on the requirements of statutes, regulations, standards and codes of practice

The Act, Regulations and Codes of Practice can be downloaded free of charge from the Worksafe website at http://www.worksafe.wa.gov.au

You always need access to the latest version (or edition) of an Australian Standard.

In the Regulations and Codes section, there are situations where you must work to an Australian Standard that is 'called up' (a legal requirement) by a regulation or code - this may not be the latest published version of the standard. For example, in some states an earlier version of AS 1851 is a legal requirement not the latest published version of AS 1851 - 2005 Maintenance of fire protection systems and equipment.

Relevant Australian Standards we may work with are:

AS 1210 Pressure Vessel

AS 1851 Maintenance of fire protection equipment

Portable fire extinguishers and fire blankets

AS 2444 Portable fire extinguishers and fire blankets

Selection and location

AS 4332 The storage and handling of gases in cylinders

AS 5062 Fire protection for mobile and transportable equipment.
Working with Australian Standards
Working with Australian Standards
The Australian Standard for fire protection equipment sets out the specifications and procedures to maintain and install fire protection equipment. Each standard is designed to make sure the equipment or system is installed and commissioned to work correctly.  

When the equipment is installed correctly, regularly serviced and maintained, it will operate as designed in an emergency.

Your job is to make sure the equipment will operate correctly when needed.
Written Assessment and Practical Session

Prepare for fire protection equipment servicing in the workplace.

Practical Session

Fire Extinguishers
Level 4 testing
Fire Blankets
Fire Hose Reels
Landing Valves
Smoke Alarm
New smoke alarm regulations

Since the 1 October 2009 it is law for mains powered smoke alarms to be installed in residential properties. This is for properties built before 1997 that are being sold, rented or for hire. In dwellings where the construction of the building does not permit a space to conceal the wiring or where no mains power is available, smoke alarms with a ten year battery life are permitted.

Under Building Regulations Amendment 2009 an electrical contractor must install mains powered smoke alarms before a property is sold or in rental and hire properties.

Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activity, including synthetic greenhouse gases and burning fossil fuels create carbon dioxide that increases the greenhouse effect that leads to global warming.

Synthetic greenhouse gases (SGG) trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. These gases were introduced to replace ozone-depleting extinguishing agents. Unfortunately, many synthetic greenhouse gases contribute to global warming so they are also regulated or controlled.

Synthetic Greenhouse Gases (SGG)
At the end of this unit, the competent participant will be able to:

Know which tools, equipment, hardware and spare parts you’ll need

Maintain your tools and equipment

Handle and holding work materials

Detect cables and pipe work in buildings

Convert units of measurement

Select fastener types to match wall materials

Hang fire extinguisher brackets and attaching signs

Complete installation and servicing paperwork

Clean up the work site after you have finished
Learning Outcomes
Results of Poor Maintenance
ODS & SGG Breach
The regulations outline penalties and authorise the Fire Protection Industry (ODS & SGG) Board to inspect premises.

If the Board notices a possible breach, the matter is referred to the Australian Government for investigation and possible enforcement of penalties.

Section Six
Prepare for installation and servicing operations
Prevent ozone depleting substance and synthetic greenhouse gas emissions

Testing a pressure vessel using fluid to create pressure
Hydrostatic Testing
Hose Reel Specifications
Dead airspace and proper mounting of smoke alarms on side walls

Side Wall
Exposed Floor Joists
Ceiling Line
Smoke Alarm
Mandatory PPE Safety Signs
Emergency Block Plan
Firstly, try to
eliminate the risk

This may mean
you discontinue a dangerous work practice or you
completely remove a dangerous substance or item of equipment

For example
removing unguarded tools from the workplace, or
remove asbestos from a workplace, or
use manual handling aids

Step 3 – Decide on Control Measures
Risk Management Process
Risk Management
The aim of risk management is to find and fix hazards before incidents occur and in the event that an incident does occur, ensure that appropriate corrective action is undertaken.

Hazards & Risks are NOT the same thing

A Hazard is anything that has the potential to cause injury or disease to people, damage to the environment, property, plant or equipment.

Risk is the likelihood that death, injury or illness might result because of the hazard.

Workers must report all incidents, injuries & workplace hazards to the employer.

Employers must report notifiable/serious injury, diseases and deaths to WorkSafe.
WH&S Reporting
Workers must:

Follow the safety instructions of their Employer and the Main Contractor;
Not interfere with or misuse anything provided for safety;
Not put at risk the safety of any person;
Not injure themselves;
Not engage in workplace bullying.
Safety Obligations
Equipment & Tools
Equipment and tools are aids that you use in doing a task

Types of equipment/tool include:
Power tools
Hand tools

Equipment and tools should be:
In good working order
Right for the job
Used in accordance with specifications
Maintained and stored correctly
Signage on sites includes but is not limited to the following:
Typical Hazard Warning or Control Signs
In accordance to Australian Standards 1319.1994, Safety Signs are classified into four main categories

signs are signs containing instructions (Must Do, Cant Do & Limitations)

signs are signs advising of risks (Danger - KILL YOU Warning - HURT YOU)

Emergency information
signs indicate the location of, or directions to, emergency related facilities such as exits, safety equipment or first aid facilities (INFORM YOU)

signs advise the location of fire alarms and firefighting facilities and equipments; this classification is also a mean of an “INFORM YOU” sign.
Signs & Barriers
Indicate to workers & public
Warn of danger

And should be:
Clearly visible;
Not obstructed;
In good condition
In accordance with AS 1319

Employers must ensure employees:

Are supplied with correct PPE
Receive adequate PPE training
Are aware of testing/maintenance requirements
Are familiar with location/storage PPE
Understand the limitations when using PPE
Know replacement specifications
Follow signs that instruct the use of PPE
Step 5 – Monitor & Review
Control measures should be reviewed in order to determine the effectiveness of the control measure and whether the implementation of the control measure will introduce a new hazard.
Step 4 – Implement Control Measures
Once control measures have been identified they need to be implemented or put in place by:

Developing work procedures and contingency and emergency plans


Providing training and instruction



When risk cannot be controlled by any other means Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) can be used.
After all other measures have been employed and there is still a risk of injury or illness, appropriate PPE must be worn.

Hearing - such as ear muffs and ear plugs

Breathing - respirators

Eye - goggles, glasses, visors, etc

Face - wide brim sun hats.

Hands - gloves

Falling objects - safety helmets, toe protective footwear, etc.

PPE is considered the least effective means of risk control

If you cannot isolate the hazardous material, process or equipment
or e
equipment or work processes

Example –

installing the balustrading at the same time as the stairs
fitting a frame to a tractor for rollover protection
using the truck mounted crane to place tiles to minimise manual handling
redesigning a guardrail so that a person can climb through instead of having to climb over.
If you cannot substitute equipment or work processes:
Try to
the hazard.

Example -

installing screens or barriers around an area where welding is taking place
installing guard-railing at the edge of a roof, on trestles or on hanging brackets
fencing off a construction site
placing mesh under a skylight
covering penetrations in a floor
If you cannot eliminate the risk:
a less hazardous material, process or equipment

Examples -
replacing an existing tool with one that has better guarding to achieve the same result.
replacing glass with plastic
replacing an angle grinder with a nibbler to cut flashing etc
replacing a free standing ladder with scaffold stairs
replacing the manual lifting with a mechanical device.
Step 2 – Assess Risks
Determine likelihood of event occurring
Assess the consequences (severity of injury)
Combine the likelihood and consequences to rate the risks
Hazard Identification Strategies

Observe the workplace

Analyse tasks/work activities

Assess task/activities interactions

Identify any changes

Consider past incidents or injuries

Review information provided by manufacturers or suppliers

Monitor industry practice / outcomes

Check Codes of Practice / Standards & WHS Laws
What to look for:

Physical hazards (Height, dust etc.)

Plant operation hazards (Noise, exhaust fumes, electricity etc.)

Biological hazards (Disease, illness etc.)

Radiation hazards (UV from welding or sun, nuclear etc.)

Psychological hazards (bullying etc.)

Ergonomic hazards (Posture, lifting technique etc.)
Step 1 – Identify Hazards
Employers should:

Develop policies
Inform employees of these policies
Provide employees with access to policies
Abide by the policies
Review and update

Workers should:
Follow policy directions / instructions
Seek clarification if required
Report anomalies between policy directions and work practices

Workplace Policies & Procedures
Other persons such as visitors to the site, owners, etc. must:

Follow the safety instructions of their Employer and the Main Contractor;
Not interfere with or misuse anything provided for safety;
Not put at risk the safety of any person
Not injure themselves.
Duty of Care
Principles of WHS
Everyone can work in a safe and healthy workplace

Risks and hazards are identified and eliminated from workplaces

Employers and workers abide by their duty of care responsibilities

Cooperation between all parties to improve safety

‘General duty of care’ describes the onus that the Act places upon people to ensure their own safety at work and that of others who are at the workplace or who might be injured by the work.

Duty of care is aimed at preventing anyone being killed, injured or contracting an illness because of work or activities at a workplace.
Continuous Improvement Process

Continuous Improvement Process
: is an ongoing effort to improve products, services or processes.

These efforts can seek "incremental" improvement over time or "breakthrough" improvement all at once.

Key features of a continuous improvement process:

Improvements are based on many, small changes

Ideas come from the workers, they are less likely to be radically different, and therefore easier and more cost effective to implement

All employees should continually be seeking ways to improve their own performance

It helps encourage workers to take ownership for their work, and can help reinforce team working, thereby improving worker motivation.

WHS – Legislative Framework
Acts outline the legal rules (WHS Act establishes the general duties of employers, employees and others).

Regulations provide detailed requirements that industry must follow.

Codes of practice provide guidance on prevention strategies & practical means of achieving compliance in specific areas.

Set benchmarks or minimum standards.

Provide detailed information on the requirements of statutes, regulations, standards and codes of practice.

The Act, Regulations and Codes of Practice can be downloaded free of charge from the Worksafe website at http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA
Assessment One
Compliance Documentation
In addition to WHS Acts and Regulations and site specific procedures you may also be required to comply with some or all of the following policies, procedures or reference information:

Manufacturer’s guidelines and specifications
Australian Standards
Code of Practice
Management plans
Tagging and lockout procedures
Toxic substances procedures
Gas monitoring procedures
Employment and Workplace Relations legislation
Equal Employment Opportunity
Contingency plans
tell you what to do when there has been a change in the status of work.

Emergency plans
direct you what to do in potentially dangerous situations.

These are a part of your work place procedures and you must act in accordance with directions
Your workplace may require you to be involved in a practice or drill for such events
It is important for you to know what processes are in place and you must ask your supervisor
When risk cannot be controlled by any other means
Administrative Controls
can be used.

This can be achieved is through:

Instruction and training on working safely

Inductions - General or Site-Specific

Take 5, JHA’s

Warning Signs
Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
Key Performance Indicators
are a measurement used to make sure that particular work is reaching the planned outcome. These indicators for individual tasks are identified and agreed on by the appropriate persons.
Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is generally the last line of defence.

If the risk of an identified hazard in the workplace can be further reduced by the use of PPE after all other methods of control have been employed – then PPE must be used.
WORKERS – (Section 20)

Reasonable care
Follow instructions
Do no harm
Report incidents /hazards
EMPLOYER – (Section 19)

Provide as safe as reasonably possible workplace
Information & instruction
Provide PPE
Consultation /Cooperation in relation to safety in the workplace
WHS – Legislative Framework Obligations
When is the JHA Performed?

Before an activity identified as being high or multiple risk or of low risk with significant consequences.
Who completes the JHA?

Conducting a JHA within a work group involves active participation of all workers, Supervisors and engineers

Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)
Electrical Safety
Injuries from electricity include:
Electric shock and death
Burn injuries
Electricity can throw a person (impact)
Fire and explosion
Exit injuries

Common causes of injuries:
Faulty equipment
Overloading power boards
Contact with overhead wires
Electricity and water contact
Unwanted & annoying sounds

Effects of noise include
Hearing loss
Tinnitus (constant ringing in the ears)
Communication difficulty

Regulations require a person to -
Ensure residual current devices (RCDs) are used with all electrical equipment
Avoid work too near to overhead power lines (see regulation 3.64 for minimum distances)
Ensure all tools and leads are checked and tagged every 3 months by a licensed electrician (Mining & Construction)

Controls include -
Checking condition of cords/plugs/switches
Use of residual current devices (RCD)
Reporting faulty or outdated equipment
Not over loading power boards
Keeping electrical cords tidy
Ensuring electrical cords, appliances and
switches are well away from water
Not tampering with equipment
Stay well clear of fallen power lines

Environmental Factors
Environmental protection:
Airborne pollutants
Water contamination
Soil contamination

Possible pollutants include:
Fuel and oil
Out of Service Tags
Signify equipment is faulty, unsafe or unusable

Colour coded Yellow and Black

Must be placed in a location that is visible

Can be removed by a technically qualified person who deems the equipment safe or usable (e.g. Repair person)
Personal Danger Tags
Used to protect people working on equipment
Inform people that energising or operating the equipment or circuit could be dangerous to themselves and others
Colour coded Back, Red and White
Must be in place before any work begins

Lockout and Tagging
Ensures that people and equipment are protected from hazards when:

Work is being carried out
Equipment is faulty or damaged
Repairs or maintenance are being carried out

There are two types of tags

Personal danger tags
Out of service tags
Weather Conditions
Factors to consider:

Extreme heat
Extreme cold
What is the likely impact of extreme weather conditions?
What actions need to be considered?
What contingencies need to be put in place?
Are their additional hazard controls that need to be included?
Performance indicators usually refer to such things as:
time taken
quality of product
quantity of product
cost factors
Continuous Improvement Process
Who has a Duty of Care?
All people have a duty of care and a right to be protected from injury.

For example:

Builders (Main Contractor)
Trade Contractors (Employers)
Self Employed Persons
Apprentices (Workers)
Employees (Workers)
Salespeople (Workers or Employers)
Consultants (Workers or Employers)
Delivery drivers (Workers or Employers)
Public (Other Persons)
Owners (Other Persons)
Duty of Care:
Safety obligations of the worker
Safety obligations of others
Heirarchy of Control of Risks
Risk Ranking Matrix
Step 3 – Decide on Control Measures
Step 3 – Decide on Control Measures
Step 3 – Decide on Control Measures
Step 3 – Decide on Control Measures
Step 3 – Decide on Control Measures
Step 4 – Implement Control Measures
What is A JHA?

Job Hazard Analysis is a process of planning and identifying potential hazards and recording in a work plan how to eliminate, minimise the risk to workers safety.

Workers must:

Use the PPE provided
Follow instructions for use
Maintain PPE in good condition
Follow replacement specifications
Adhere to safety signs

Typical Hazard Warning or Control Signs
Environmental Factors
Electrical Safety
Section Five
Where to locate
Working with Australian Standards
Section Two
Safely move loads and dangerous goods

Fire and Smoke Doors
Smoke Alarms
1. main water tank
2. main water pump
3. main pilot valve (dry)
4. pilot valve (wet)
5. sprinkler head - standing configuration
6. sprinkler head - hanging configuration

Fire Hydrant Systems and Components
Can supply water from tank or mains supply using diesel or electric pump, or by connection to Fire Appliance to boost system. It needs to supply water at specified flow rates and pressures over an extended period of time.

Size and type of system will depend on BCA
Assessment Two
Manual Handling Video
The purpose of this device is to sense or detect the presence of smoke in the home and alert the occupants by giving an audible alarm, allowing a chance to escape.

There are two types of smoke alarms available:
Ionisation Type
Photoelectric Sensor Type

Heads must be:
Required type

Free of:
Physical damage
Foreign materials

Colour Coding for Sprinkler Heads

Orange - 57°C
Red - 68°C (most common)
Yellow - 79°C
Green - 93 – 100°C
Blue - 121 – 141°C
Mauve - 163 – 182°C
Black - 204 - 343°C
Deluge Sprinkler System - refer to Powerpoint

Wet Pipe Sprinkler System - refer to Powerpoint

Sprinkler Systems
A sprinkler system is designed to suppress an outbreak of fire immediately

The system is comprised of pipes installed at or near the ceiling of each floor of the building, and connected through valves to a water supply.

Sprinklers activate when a pre determined temperature is reached. Water is discharged over a floor area below the sprinkler.

The operation of the sprinkler also operates a local alarm and may also be attached to a alarm panel to draw attention to the fire.

Sprinkler Systems
Automatic fire detection and alarm systems are designed to warrn building occupants of a fire situation, they do not generally intervene in the fire growth process except where interfaced with a fire suppression or other fire control system.

Automatic Fire Detection Systems
Automatic Fire Suppression, Detection and Alarm System Equipment
Fire blankets are made from synthetic materials and specially treated during the manufacturing process.
They are designed to provide fire protection by safely smothering a fire in two areas:

Fat and cooking oil fires occurring in industrial and domestic kitchens, which include take-away fast food outlets, canteens, restaurants, mobile cafes etc.

Personal protection, where the blanket can be wrapped around a person whose clothing is alight or in order to pass through an area which is alight.
After fire blankets have been used to attack a fire, they are discarded and replaced by a new blanket and container.

Fire Blankets and Containers
Fire Hydrants
Fire Hydrants can be located internally, externally or a combination of both

Internal hydrants protect all parts of the building that are not covered by the external system

To provide coverage, the hydrant must be positioned within reach of a 6 metre hose stream issuing from nozzles at the end of 2 x 30 metre lengths of hose connected to the hydrant outlet (36 metres from hydrant)

When checking position of hydrants, make sure are easily accessible for fire fighters

Feed & Attack

Lay Flat Hose
The connection of a delivery lay flat fire hose to a water supply and branch pipes, etc has to be completed quickly.
Hose couplings are available in a large range of types, sizes and adaptors. Three of the most common hose coupling types in general use in Australia are:

BIC (British Instantaneous Couplings)

A fire hose reel has the following features:
The water can be turned on for fixed fire hose reels by two methods:
By operating a manual stop valve.
By rotating the hose reel drum which operates an automatic water valve. The valve is fully opened after 1 1/2 revolutions of the drum. This method is used for hose reels connected to a dam water supply.

There are two types of nozzle operation - twist or lever types

Water stream can be either jet or spray

A typical water discharge distance can be 12 metres (depending on mains water pressure)

Operating instructions are located on the centre of the hose reel drum

The hose reel drum is painted red

Fire Hose Reel
Fire Hose Reel
Wheeled Fire Extinguishers
Fire protection equipment is the first line of defense for emergency situations involving fire in the workplace, home or community that requires evacuation or fire suppression.

Should fire protection equipment fail through poor manufacture, design, application or maintenance the outcome could cost lives.

Example of Dangerous Goods Signage
(On site)
First figure

A number between 1 and 4 corresponding to an application technique
1 = Jet
2 = Fog
3 = Foam
4 = Dry Agent

Emergency Information Panel
Substances are defined as a Dangerous Good if they are:

Exhibit chemical properties that are potentially dangerous to people or property

They include a wide range of industrial, commercial and household products

They are divided into classes according to their main hazard.
Dangerous Goods
Classification is based on immediate safety hazards
(fire, explosion, corrosion and acute toxicity)

Classification is based only on health effects
(i.e. immediate and long term)

Hazardous Substances & Dangerous Goods
Rushing into a task is a major cause of injuries and decreased productivity.

If you identify any manual task hazards report them to your supervisor as soon as possible.

Prior to commencing a manual task you need to:
Identify the hazards
Assess the risks
Control the risks

The best way to prevent injuries is to eliminate the manual task by using mechanical aids.
Principles of Safe Manual Task
When carrying a load you should:
keep the load close to your body
keep the load at no more than waist height; and
take short steps

If a load is too heavy or too large for you to lift and carry on your own:
use a mechanical aid; or
get someone to assist you.

Carrying Loads
Manual task injuries often occur as a result of obstructions or protrusions getting in the way of handlers while moving loads to their destination.

For this reason you need to:

Plan the lift
Plan the route
Clear the destination
Adopt Safe Lifting Techniques

Safe Lifting
Modify workplace layout
Where possible items used in manual task injuries should be placed in the following locations:

In front of the person
Between waist and shoulder height
Close to the midline of the person
On the person's preferred side
Within comfortable reaching distance
Positioned to avoid double handling and to avoid moving loads manually over long distances
Arrange your work area
Constraints on posture
The risk of injury increases in relation to space constraints in handling.

Rough or slippery floors
The risk of injury increases with greater degrees of floor slipperiness or unevenness.

Variations in levels
The risk of injury increases with greater differences in floor level.

Adverse climatic conditions
The risk of injury increases with higher temperatures and humidity, colder temperatures or windy conditions.

Poor lighting
The risk of injury increases with lower levels of light or higher levels of glare.

The Work Environment
The risk of injury increases as the weight of a load increases

Bulky, large or awkward
The risk of injury increases as the size of the load becomes larger

Difficult to grasp
The risk of injury increases with the lack of safe handholds on a load.

Unstable and unpredictable
The risk of injury increases with the level of instability and unpredictability.

Intrinsically harmful
The risk of injury increases with:
the sharpness or roughness of the load
hot or cold surface temperatures

The Load
Holding loads away from the trunk
The risk of injury increases as the load is held further away from the front of the body

Reaching upwards and handling a load above shoulder height
The risk of injury increases the higher the load is above shoulder height.

Bending forward and handling the load below mid-thigh height
The risk of injury increases the closer the load is to the ground.

The risk of injury increases with the degree of body twist.

Sideways bending and load handling with one hand
The risk of injury increases with the degree of sideways bending to handle a load.

Long carrying distances
The risk of injury increases with distance the load is carried.

Strenuous pushing and pulling
The risk of injury increases as the amount of force required pushing and pulls becomes greater.

Sudden or jerky movements
The risk of injury increases with the amount of force used.
Actions and Postures
Often the risk is created or increased due to the manual task activity:


Repetitive or sustained application of force
Repetitive or sustained awkward posture
Repetitive or sustained movement
Application of high force (including jerky or unexpected forces)
Exposure to sustained vibration (in combination with any of the above)
Handling of loads that are unstable, unbalanced or difficult to hold
Manual task injuries are often associated with demanding work conditions and heavy loads.

Studies show, however, that many injuries involve relatively light loads and are caused by other handling risks.

Manual Task Risk Factors
Sprains and strain of muscles, ligaments and tendons
Back injuries
Joint injuries or degeneration
Bone injuries
Muscular and vascular disorders as a result of hand - arm vibration
Soft tissue hernias
Types of Injuries - MSDs
Dry Pipe Sprinkler System - refer to Powerpoint

Each fire blanket shall be located in a conspicuous and readily accessible position but shall not be located in a position where access could present a hazard to the potential user.

Where practical, fire blankets shall be located along normal paths of travel and near exits.

Fire Blankets
Fire Hydrants
Standpipe, Valve Key and Bar
Allow water to be raised to a workable height
Below Ground Hydrant
Attach to water main
Booster Systems allow fire appliances to attach to ring main to boost water pressure in system
Booster Connections
In the absence of a fixed fire protection system, the most convenient method of delivering a large amount of water to a fire is by means of a flexible hose.

The purpose of a delivery lay flat fire hose is to deliver water from a supply source to a fire.

Sizes of hoses and couplings which connect the hose to the water supply vary by application and state.

Lay flat fire hoses are classified by working pressure:
L (low); use with a working pressure of 1000 kPa
M (medium); use with a working pressure of 1400 kPa
H (high); use with a working pressure of 2100 kPa
Lay Flat Fire Hoses
A fire hose reel has the following features:
The fire hose is made from elastomeric (rubber like) material and is approximately 19mm in diameter.

The length of hose, which must not have any joins, is between 18 metres and 36 metres. The length is marked on the hose reel drum.

The hose is coloured red and black and is marked at intervals with the year of manufacture and the maker’s identification mark.

Fire Hose Reel
Portable Fire Extinguishers
AS 2444: Portable fire extinguishers and fire blankets: Selection and location states that a portable fire extinguisher is:

‘A first-attack firefighting appliance which is designed to be carried and operated by hand and which, when charged to design capacity, has a gross mass of not greater than 23kg’

Therefore a portable fire extinguisher is:

Used as a first attack means to extinguish a small fire
Can be carried by hand
Can be operated by hand
When fully charged, does not exceed 23kg
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

As a minimum, the employer should ensure that employees have access to Material Safety Data Sheets. An MSDS will provide:

Product identification
Precautions for use
Safe handling information
Health hazards
Details of PPE required
First Aid Actions


2 = Fog

R = Dilute

E = Consider Evacuation

FOG – In the absence of fog equipment a fine spray may be used

DRY AGENT - Water must not be allowed to come into contact with the substance at risk

V - Can have a violent or even explosive reaction

FULL – Full body protective clothing with B.A.

BA – Breathing apparatus plus protective gloves

DILUTE – May be washed to drain with large quantities of water

CONTAIN – Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course

Hazchem Codes – Guidance Notes
Class 7 – Radioactive Material, the provisions of the nation standard do not apply to class 6.2 dangerous goods. For further information on the management of hazards associated with class 6.2 contact the Health Authority in your State or Territory.

Class 8 – Corrosive Substances, solid and liquid substances that can damage living tissue or corrode steel or aluminum

Class 6.1 – Toxic Substances, substances likely to cause death or serious injury if ingested, inhaled or brought into contact with the skin

Class 6.2 – Infectious Substances, the provision of the national standard do not apply to Class 6.2 dangerous goods. For further information on the management of hazards associated with Class 6.2 contact the Health Authority in your State or Territory

Class 5.1 – Oxidising Agents, substances that are not generally combustible themselves, but may by yielding oxygen, cause or contribute to the combustion of other materials with which they come into contact.

Class 5.2 – Oxidising peroxides, substances that are thermally unstable and may undergo exothermic (giving off heat) self accelerating decomposition which could result in an explosion, rapid combustion or a dangerous reaction with other substances.

Substances that have the potential to harm human health are defined as Hazardous Substances.

They may be:

Hazardous Substances
Manual task injuries can have serious consequences on your life, resulting in long-term pain, loss of income, and a decrease in quality of life.

By following safe manual task principles you can prevent manual task injuries happening to you or your co-workers.

Remember - Before lifting and handling:
• Plan the lift
• Plan the route
• And prepare for the task

Use mechanical aids and assistance in the first place. Ensure you follow safe lifting techniques at all times and report any hazards to a supervisor.

Never rush in to lift an object.

Your life could depend on it!

Spot the Hazard
Modify workplace layout
Mechanical aids used to assist manual handling:

Hand trolley
Overhead crane
Power tools
Powered hand truck
Mechanical Aids
When pushing a load you should:
place your feet apart with one well behind the other;
lean forward;
gradually apply your body weight;
thrust forward with your rear foot

When pulling a load you should:
place your feet apart with one well behind the other;
lean back into the line of the pull;
gradually apply your bodyweight; and
thrust backward with your front foot
Pushing and Pulling Loads
Other contributing factors include:

Climatic variables such as heat and cold
Physical fitness and age
Or any combination of the above

Causes of Manual Handling Injuries
- handling a load beyond the body’s capability

Repetitive actions
- continually repeating certain movements or maintaining a body position for long periods

Poor housekeeping
- slips, trips and falls

Poor workplace layout
- encourages unsafe work postures and unnecessary manual handling

Incorrect technique
- incorrect body positions and movements

A weight at a short distance from the fulcrum requires less effort to move than the same weight at a longer distance from the fulcrum.

When lifting a load, the closer it is to the person’s body, the less stress there is on the body, and therefore the lower the risk of injury.
Principles of Biomechanics

Muscle contraction & no movement

Muscle contraction & movement

Types of muscle work
“Manual handling” means any activity requiring the use of force exerted by a person to lift, lower, push, pull, carry or otherwise move, hold or restrain a person, animal or thing.

Note: Manual handling also includes any activity involving repetitive and/or forceful movements (e.g. keying data into a computer; using a screwdriver) and any activity where the person must maintain constrained or awkward postures (e.g. driving a truck; leaning over to make beds).
Definition of Manual Handling
Identification and Location Signage
Fire and Smoke Doors
Photoelectric Detector

Ionisation Detector

Smoke Alarms
Deluge Sprinkler System

Dry Pipe Sprinkler System

Wet Pipe Sprinkler System

Sprinkler Systems
Fire hydrants provide an outlet to permit a controlled supply of water to be taken from the pipeline for fire fighting.

Fire Hydrants
Identification of Fire Protection Equipment
Fire extinguishers are the most common and visible form of fire protection equipment in the workplace.

All fire protection equipment must conform to various standards and codes in both manufacture, design, application and maintenance.

Time for a break!
Please ensure that you are back here ready to start at the appointed time.
Signage With Subsidiary Risk
Second and third figure

Derived from Hazchem Scale

Class 9 – Miscellaneous dangerous goods and articles, substances and articles that present a danger and are not covered by other classes.

Class 4.2 – Substances liable to spontaneous combustion, substances likely to heat spontaneously and ignite

Class 4.3 – Substances that in contact with water will emit flammable or toxic gases. Substances that when in contact with water are likely to become spontaneously flammable or give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities

Classes of Dangerous Goods
Class 1 – Explosive, substances used to produce explosions

Class 2.1 – Flammable Gases, gases that can ignite in air on contact with a source of ignition

Class 2.2 – Non-flammable, non-toxic gases. Are non-flammable but may cause suffocation

Manual tasks are any activity involving the use of muscular force (or effort) to lift, move, push, pull, carry, hold, throw or restrain any object.

It covers more than lifting heavy weights and affects more than the back.
What is a Manual Task?
Identification and Location Signage
Section Three
Identify types of installed Fire Safety Equipment and Systems

These are designed to assist first response personnel in setting priorities and initiating strategies
Hazchem Codes

Class 2.3 – Toxic Gases, Gases likely to cause death or serious injury if inhaled

Class 3 – Flammable Liquids, Liquids, the vapours of which can ignite in air on contact with a source of ignition at a temperature below 60.5°C

Class 4.1 – Flammable Solids, substances that are easily ignited by external sources, such as sparks and flames

100mm min.

1200mm max.

2000mm min.

As per AS2444

Identification and Location Signage
As per WA Code of Practice
An example is to store heaviest items on shelves at waist height. This means that workers will handle the heavier loads in upright postures.
Raising the height allows people to work in more upright postures.

Modifying the load
Repackage to reduce weight
Utlise hand holds
Fire Extinguishers
Start using the extinguisher from a safe distance away, then move forward as the fire diminishes.

Once the fire is out, a fire watch of 60 minutes must be maintained in case it re-ignites.

Fire Extinguishers
Fire Extinguishers

x Short Duration

x Short Penetration

x Not Universal

x Suspect Reliability


Quick action


One person operation

Located close to the hazard

Fire Extinguishers

Class Used For:
Pressurised with:
Discharge Time:
Distance of Throw:
Extinguishes by:
Red with yellow band
3kg vapourising liquid
(E) (computer rooms)
Inert gas
7-10 seconds
3 metres
Interrupting the Flame Chain Reaction
Fire Extinguishers

Class Used For:
Pressurised with:
Discharge Time:
Distance of Throw:
Extinguishes by:
Red with oatmeal band
7L of liquid suppressant
A & F
Nitrogen or air
70 seconds
3 metres
Smothering & cooling
Fire Extinguishers

Class Used For:
Pressurised with:
Discharge Time:
Distance of Throw:
Extinguishes by:

Red with black band
2kg, 3.5kg or 5.5kg CO2
A, B & (E)
15 seconds
1-1.5 metres
Fire Extinguishers

Class Used For:
Pressurised with:
Discharge Time:
Distance of Throw:
Extinguishes by:
Red with white band
9kg of dry powder
A, B, C, D (E) and F
Inert gas
60-90 seconds
4 metres
Interrupting the flame chain reaction (A, B, C, D, (E) & F fires). Smothering (B & (E) fires)
NEVER use foam to extinguish electrical fires.

Electrical equipment must be unplugged and/or de-energized before using a water extinguisher on it.
Foam Extinguisher Precautions
Fire Extinguishers

Class Used For:
Pressurised with:
Discharge Time:
Distance of Throw:
Extinguishes by:
Red with blue band
Water & 600ml of B class foam
A & B
Air or inert gas
120 seconds
4 metres
Smothering & cooling
Water Extinguisher Precautions
Fire Extinguishers
NEVER use water to extinguish flammable liquid fires or electrical fires.

Electrical equipment must be unplugged and/or de-energized before using a water extinguisher on it.

Class Used For:
Pressurised with:
Discharge Time:
Distance of Throw:
Extinguishes by:
9L of water
Air or inert gas
120 seconds
8 metres
Cooling, slighting smothering
Fire Extinguishers
Each extinguisher has a distinct colour band placed around the cylinder body to identify the contents contained with the extinguishers.
Fire Fighting Agents
Fire fighting agents are substances that can extinguish fires:

Extinguishing powder
Carbon dioxide
Vapourising liquids
Wet chemical
Special agents
Classes of Fire
Classes of fire
(Sub Class (E))
(Energised Electrical Equipment)

Electricity is not a fuel and it does not burn like a fuel. However, it is a dangerous complication at a fire, because it is a source of heat & potential electric shock.

Electricity can cause additional problems in structure fires as adding water increases the risk of an electrocution.
Appliances likely to cause electrical fires include clothes driers, toasters, stoves, electrical jugs, irons, electric motors.

Fires involving electricity are normally best extinguished by SMOTHERING or INHIBITING, but only with a substance that is a NON-CONDUCTOR of electricity.
Once an electrical supply has been shut off, a fire can be attacked according to the type of fuel that is burning.

Extinguishers safe to use on electrical fires may have an (E) printed inside brackets on their label.
Section 1: Isolated/remote structure fire
Classes of fire
Class F
Combustible fats and oils, such as those found in food deep fryers.

These fires should be SMOTHERED using the appropriate extinguishing agent.
(Wet Chemical extinguisher)

Section 1: Isolated/remote structure fire
Classes of fire
Class D
Fires involving combustible metals, such as magnesium or aluminium.
A SPECIAL SMOTHERING agent is required.

Do not use water on metal fires. If water is applied to a Class D fire it will break down into its elements, hydrogen and oxygen and accelerate combustion or cause an explosion. It may be wise to let metal burn out if there are no exposures or other risks.
Class C
Fires involving flammable gases, such as natural gas, LP Gas, hydrogen and acetylene.
Extinguished by STARVING the fire of the gas supply e.g. by turning off the supply.

Be aware of
Boiling Liquid Evaporating Vapour Explosion
Section 1: Isolated/remote structure fire
Classes of fire
Class B
Fires involving flammable and combustible liquids such as petrol, oil, alcohol, kerosene, paint, methylated spirits and wax.
Extinguish by SMOTHERING with foam or INHIBITING with dry chemical powder.

Class A
Common, solid fuels with an organic carbon base, such as wood, paper, fabric, plaster and rubber. Extinguish by COOLING with water.

Section 1: Isolated/remote structure fire

Practical Session
Hazardous Substances & Dangerous Goods
Classes of Dangerous Goods
Classes of Dangerous Goods
Classes of Dangerous Goods
Classes of Dangerous Goods
Classes of Dangerous Goods
Classes of Dangerous Goods
It is always a 2 or 3 figure code
Hazchem Codes
Hazchem Codes
Identification of Fire Protection Equipment
Fire hose reels are used to attack a Class A fire (wood, paper, cloth, cardboard etc.) and their function is to supply a continuous and controllable supply of water to the fire.

There are three basic types of fire hose reels:
Fixed type fire hose reel
Swing hinged type fire hose reel
Vehicle mounted fire hose reel

Fire Pump Sets
Heat Transfer
Boiling Liquid, Expanding Vapor Explosion - video
Cooking Oil Fire - video
PASS Method - Video
End of Day Two
Risk Management Process
Pump Set and Ring Main
Sprinkler Systems
Sprinkler Systems
Sprinkler Systems
7. pressure tank
8. testing piping
9. testing piping
10. filling piping
11. compressor
12. alarm bell
13. fire central
14. alarm bell
15. pressure gauge
16. switchboard
Sprinkler Systems
Products of Combustion
The gases, smoke and solids matter produced during combustion are referred to as products of combustion.

These consist of:

Carbon particulates

Toxic gases (CO2, CO and a variety of other gases including hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen chloride)

Flammable gases, may reignite when mixed with the right proportions of oxygen and with sufficient heat

All smoke is toxic once inhaled

Fire Fighting Agents
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Water
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Powder
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Powder
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Powder
Visibility problems
- The application of dry powder and generation of a dense powder cloud will dramatically reduce the visibility of the operator so they may not be able to use vision to judge the effectiveness of the powder on the fire or may jeopardise escape in a fire.

Can cause breathing problems
- If dry powder is inhaled it can irritate the respiratory organs. Whilst short term exposure is not considered to be harmful, repeated inhalation should be avoided.

Leaves a residue
- Dry powder is a very messy extinguishing agent that will leave behind a residue that is corrosive to certain material
The fine powder can also be quite abrasive.

Thoughtless use may lead to the powder causing more damage than the fire itself, using dry powder fire extinguishers in kitchens or offices as powder can contaminate food and inhibit the use of electrical components such as keyboards if discharged.
Because of the properties of powder being very light and easily carried through the atmosphere dry powder extinguishers when discharged risk contamination over a wide area.
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Powder
Poor post fire security
- Due to the smothering and chemical interference effect of dry powder, it will only remain effective whilst it is present in the atmosphere above the fuel. Because it is a cloud of fine powder, particles of it can easily be dispersed by the wind, giving a very real danger of rapid re-ignition of fuel.

Vulnerable to packing down
- Failure of extinguisher can result from the packing down of the powder within the extinguisher body, this problem is associated more with cartridge operated extinguishers. This can be a particular problem on vehicle mounted equipment as the vehicle vibration will cause the powder to compress under its own weight. Regular maintenance routines are essential; to prevent failure of equipment at a crucial time.
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Powder
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: CO2
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: CO2
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Foam
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Foam
Multiple classes of fire covered
- Can be used on both Class A and Class B fires.

Quick knock down
– The AFFF extinguisher medium gives a rapid knock down of the fire and in the case of contained flammable liquid fires the fuel is covered by a film of foam that help cool the fuel as well as sealing in the flammable vapours.

- Does not impair visibility of the operator when used.

– The foam extinguisher is non-toxic and non damaging to most materials. That said the environmental implications of using foam extinguishers should always be considered. Effective against obstructed Class B fires such as car engine bays. Can be applied to liquids in tanks shielding them from another source of ignition.
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Foam
Flammable liquid fires
- Although can be used flammable liquid fires there are limitations to the liquids covered. Consulting with the data sheet of the liquids to be covered will help identify which foam should be used, fires involving alcohol require alcohol-resistant aqueous film forming foam (AR-AFFF).

– The cost of purchasing and refilling are higher than the water extinguishers and with the environmental implications of disposing of foam will see the refills costs increase.

– If used with conjunction with powder extinguishers then the powder must be foam compatible or the powder may break down the foam protective blanket.
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Foam
Characteristics of extinguishing agents: Foam
Revenue Spreadsheet

Fire Doors
Thermal Imaging
Evacuation Diagrams
Seals and Penetrations
For Class B fire risks, in areas not containing a fixed automatic fire suppression system, extinguishers shall be distributed in accordance with Table 4.2.
Class A Fire Risks
Class B Fire Risks
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