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Transcript of 1450-1750
Reformation, and Western Domination Akbar Peter the Great Zheng He Christopher Columbus Martin Luther Babur Suleyman Jannisary Maritime Revolution:
1492- Last Muslim Kingdom on Iberian Peninsula falls and Christopher Columbus travels to the Bahamas 1450: Maritime Revolution Begins leading to European dominance 1750: Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution Motivations and Technologies
Search for resources and new trade routes
and new inventions sparked Revolution.
Technologies: Astrolabe, Better Maps, Sextant, and Magnetic Compass Famous Explorers of the Revolution:
Bartolomeu Dias- rounded Cape of Good Horn
Christopher Columbus- went sailing for Asia and found Bahamas
Vasco de Gama- reached India
Ferdinand Magellin- circumnavigates the globe
Global Economy and Columbian Exchange (exchange of organic goods and disease between New and Old World) Goods from Europe to Ameicas
Diseases(smallpox and others) Goods from America to Africa, Asia, and Europe
Tobacco Silver discovered to be abundant American precious metal stimulated global economy but also led to massive Spanish and Ottoman inflation Sugar grown around the Americas especially on plantations in the Caribbean eventually gave rise to Atlantic Slave Trade. Before slaves Native Indians were forced to work due to the unfair system of labor known as the encomienda system in which Spanish decided they had "right" to demand labor from people.
Atlantic Slave Trade was one of the most significant outcomes of the Columbian Exchange
-Portuguese brought slaves from Africa to Brazil to work on plantations
-Passage of slave ships known as Middle Passage
-Eventually Triangular Trade developed global trade Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulatos Native Indians Social Pyramid in New Spain The Great Islamic Ottoman Empire(1450-1750)
-Formed by Turks who replaced Mongol power in Middle East in early 1300s
-Sultans like Suleyman the Magnificent held absolute monarchy
-Politics based on holy Islam Law Shar'ia
-land based military used elite fighting force called Janissary
-Janissary= Christian slave chosen by devishrme system
-Empire Peaks during Suleyman's rule and the 1600s but then suffers massive inflation and corruption
-Janissaries became wealthy and corrupt eventually holding great power and influence and having others fight for them When the Spanish reached the Americas conquistadors such as Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizzaro conquered the great American civilizations such as the Aztecs(Cortes) and Inca(Pizzaro). The Protestant Reformation and its Aftermath
Initiated by Martin Luther when he posted his 95 theses on a church door due to selling indulgences or selling salvation the Protestant Reformation completely changed society.
Religious Maps of Europe redrawn; Protestants in North and Catholics in South
Roman Catholic Church power declines and even leads to Catholic Reformation
Wars started between Protestants and Catholics that would last 200 years
Scientific Revolution- as the Church lost power more and more Revolutionary thinkers appeared. These intellectuals gave birth to the Scientific Revolution which tried to explain everyday happenings using natural causes. (Newton and Galileo)
Enlightenment-Applied principles of the Scientific Revolution to humans.
Led to deep philosophical questions from many men
John Locke said all men are created equal and had the right to be free
Voltaire argued freedom of speech shoudl be permitted
Montesquieu urged for tolerance and segmented goverments After Mongol rule ended an isolated and devastated Russia set silently behind the rest of the world until the rise of great leaders like Peter The Great and Ivan the Terrible.
Ivan Created absolute monarchy, headed the Russian Orthodox Church, and named himself czar
Romanov family comes into power and rules for 300 years
Peter the Great-forced rapid modernization and Westernization but denied idea of representative government( had Western clothes and had Western constructional styles like St.Petersburg
Russian serfdom began in 1500s when free Russian peasants fell into great debts
Serfdom satisfied nobility and regulated peasant numbers
With new territories came the expansion of serfdom
1649- acts passed that made serfdom hereditary and serfs could not leave it. They could be bought or sold like slaves.
Serfs not classified as slaves but had to pay high taxes and owed much labor service to landowners The Safavid Empire
Conquered Iranian Plateau
Unified Persia 1502-1509
Shia Islam The Battle of Chaldrain
-Safavids weapons were unreliable
-Faith in God After Ismail:
-moved capital to Isfahan
-Ottoman foes Fall of the Safavids:
-siege of Isfahan
-executed officials Songhay (1464-1591)
-Took power over Mali empire in West Africa
-Trans- Saharan trade route
-Timbuktu The Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan 1600- 1867:
Japan's relationship with foreigners became controlled and isolated
Only Trade Island Was Nagasaki
No one could travel abroad
Europeans were expelled
No foreign trading except some with Dutch and Chinese
Christianity was spread and accepted before Tokugawa but then all Christians were persecuted, tortured, expelled, and executed Qing Dynasty of China 1644-1911
With the decline of the Ming in 1640 Manchus from the north enter and take over China becoming the final dynasty of China the Qing
Qing were very conservative and wished to preserver culture and heritage
Manchu and Chinese could not intermarry
Chinese could not travel to Manchuria or learn their language
Chinese men had to wear hairband as sign of submission to Manchus Zheng He was ordered by his emperor to go on a series of 7 journeys with China's treasure fleet to spread contacts and show off China's wealth
Zheng was a Chinese Muslim making him very friendly in Africa and Middle East
Zheng He passed away after his 7th Journey in 1433 but initiated what seemed like the foundations for the Maritime Revolution and its great explorers Changes and Continuities during 1450-1750 Changes
Europe becomes dominant world power
China begins to decentralize
Manchus rule over China
Trade with New World Begins
Enlightenment and Enlightened Thinkers
Scientific Revolution Continuities
Europe stays a dominant power
Manchus continue to rule over China
Trade always keeps up with new world
Countries always try to colonize New World
Atlantic Slave Trade supplies slaves for sugar plantations
Forced Labor like encomienda and serfdom Mughal Empire of India:
Founded by Babur the son of the great Timur in 1526 Mughal India grew under Babur to become a rich and powerful state.
Babur was even able to defeat the last Sultan of Dheli
Babur's grandson Akbar was a brilliant man and administrator
The Mughals faced a religious tear between Muslims and Hindus and Akbar sought to sew this tear before it ruined the empire
Sunni Islam was the main practice of Islam in the Mughal Empire
At the height of their power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled most of the Indian Subcontinent—extending from Bengal in the east to Balochistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south
1675- the 10th guru of Sikism organizes the Army of the Pure to defend Sikh Islam
1707- with the death of Aurangzeb and the threat of famine and war the Mughals began to decline
1739-Adur Shaw sacks Deli and the weakened Mughals begin to succumb to their foes.
1741- Europe begins to involve itself in India Ottoman Victory