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Neopsychoanalytic Approach? Approach what?
Transcript of Neopsychoanalytic Approach? Approach what?
Harry Stack Sullivan Who is Carl Jung? born 26 July 1875, was a Swiss psychiatrist. Jung is considered as the
first modern psychologist to state that the human psyche
is "by nature religious" and to explore it in depth. Although he was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician,
much of his life's work was spent exploring other areas, including Eastern
and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well as literature and the arts. Many of these thinkers agreed with Freud's concept
of the unconscious mind and the importance of early childhood. There were, however, a number of points that other thinkers disagreed with or directly rejected. Because of this, these individuals when on to propose their own unique theories of personality. Analytical psychology (or Jungian psychology) is the school of psychology originating from the ideas of Carl Jung. Though they share similarities, analytical psychology is distinct from Freudian psychoanalysis. Its aim is wholeness through the integration of unconscious forces and motivations underlying human behavior. Whereas Sigmund Freud’s method of psychoanalysis was grounded in materialism, Carl Jung believed that too many philosophers were relying on science and logic in order to understand the core precepts to psychology. Who is Alfred Adler? Austrian medical doctor and psychologist Alfred Adler is best known as the founder of Individual Psychology. Individual Psychology 1. According to Adler's theory, each of us is born into the world with a sense of inferiority. We start as a weak and helpless child and strive to overcome these deficiencies by become superior to those around us. He called this struggle a striving for superiority, and like Freud's Eros and Thanatos, he saw this as the driving force behind all human thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. 2. Adler did agree with Freud on some major issues relating to the parenting of children and the long term effects of improper or inefficient child rearing. Pampering
a parent overprotecting a child, giving him too much attention, and sheltering him from the negative realities of life. As this child grows older, he will be ill equipped to deal with these realities, may doubt his own abilities or decision making skills, and may seek out others to replace the safety he once enjoyed as a child. Neglect
A neglected child is one who is not protected at all from the world and is forced to face life's struggles alone.
This child may grow up to fear the world, have a strong sense of mistrust for others and she may have a difficult time forming intimate relationships. 3. Birth Order Adler believed that the order in which you are born to a family inherently effects your personality. First born children who later have younger siblings may have it the worst. These children are given excessive attention and pampering by their parents until that fateful day when the little brother or sister arrives. Suddenly they are no longer the center of attention and fall into the shadows wondering why everything changed. According to Adler, they are left feeling inferior, questioning their importance in the family, and trying desperately to gain back the attention they suddenly lost. The birth order theory holds that first born children often have the greatest number of problems as they get older. Middle born children may have it the easiest, and interestingly, Adler was a middle born child. These children are not pampered as their older sibling was, but are still afforded the attention. As a middle child, they have the luxury of trying to dethrone the oldest child and become more superior while at the same time knowing that they hold this same power over their younger siblings. Adler believed that middle children have a high need for superiority and are often able to seek it out such as through healthy competition. The youngest children, like the first born, may be more likely to experience personality problems later in life. This is the child who grows up knowing that he has the least amount of power in the whole family. He sees his older siblings having more freedom and more superiority. He also gets pampered and protected more than any other child did. This could leave him with a sense that he cannot take on the world alone and will always be inferior to others. who is karen horney? she studied at a medical school against her parents wishes she was born on september 16 1885. she had a rough childhood because of her authoritarian father. she married and had children. by that time she had her focus and interest on psychoanalysis in 1926 karen horney moved to US and lived in brooklyn. there she met fromm and sullivan she theorized bout neurosis and personality. she became a dean, a teacher and wrote books. horney's theory of neurosis she compiled a detailed theory of neurosis with the data from her patients. horney believed that it is a continuous process. horney named 10 patterns of neurotic needs. Moving Toward People
* 1. The need for affection and approval; pleasing others and being liked by them.
* 2. The need for a partner; one whom they can love and who will solve all problems.
Moving Against People
* 3. The need for power; the ability to bend wills and achieve control over others—while most persons seek strength, the neurotic may be desperate for it.
* 4. The need to exploit others; to get the better of them. To become manipulative, fostering the belief that people are there simply to be used.
* 5. The need for social recognition; prestige and limelight.
* 6. The need for personal admiration; for both inner and outer qualities—to be valued.
* 7. The need for personal achievement; though virtually all persons wish to make achievements, as with No. 3, the neurotic may be desperate for achievement. Moving Away from People
* 8. The need for self sufficiency and independence; while most desire some autonomy, the neurotic may simply wish to discard other individuals entirely.
* 9. The need for perfection; while many are driven to perfect their lives in the form of well being, the neurotic may display a fear of being slightly flawed.
* 10. Lastly, the need to restrict life practices to within narrow borders; to live as inconspicuous a life as possible.
Detachment Needs eight to ten were into the "detachment" category, also called the "moving-away-from" or "resigning" solution or a detached personality. As neither aggression nor compliance solve parental indifference, Horney recognized that children might simply try to become self sufficient. The withdrawing neurotic may disregard others in a non-aggressive manner, regarding solitude and independence as the way forth. The stringent needs for perfection comprise another part of this category; those withdrawing may strive for perfection above all else, to the point where being flawed is utterly unacceptable. Everything the "detached" type does must be unassailable and refined. They suppress or deny all feelings towards others, particularly love and hate.
Despite these variances with the prevalent Freudian view, Horney strove to reformulate Freudian thought, presenting a holistic, humanistic view of the individual psyche which placed much emphasis on cultural and social differences worldwide. theory of the self horney believed in that self actualization is healthy and that self is divided into two. the real self the ideal self the real self is who we really are. the ideal self is what we feel we should be. growth, happiness, will power, realization of gifts helps the real self to reach self-actualization. Horney found she was able to condense them into three categories:
Compliance Needs one and two were into the "compliance" category. This category is seen as a process of "moving towards people". Under Horney's theory children facing difficulties with parents often use this strategy. Fear of helplessness and abandonment occurs—phenomena Horney refers to as "basic anxiety". Those within the compliance category tend to exhibit a need for affection and approval on the part of their peers. They may also seek out a partner.
Aggression Needs three toseven were into the "aggression" category, also called the "moving against people", or the "expansive" solution. Neurotic children or adults within this category often exhibit anger or basic hostility to those around them. That is, there is a need for power, a need for control and exploitation.Manipulative qualities aside, under Horney's assertions the aggressive individual may also wish for social recognition, not necessarily in terms of limelight, but in terms of simply being known (perhaps feared) by subordinates and peers alike. In addition, the individual has needs for a degree of personal admiration by those within this person's social circle and, lastly, for raw personal achievement. These characteristics comprise the "aggressive" neurotic type. Aggressive types also tend to keep people away from them. they only care about their wants and needs. They would do whatever they can to be happy. Neo-Freudianism
Horney, together with fellow psychoanalyst Alfred Adler, formed the Neo-Freudian discipline.
While Horney acknowledged and agreed with Freud on many issues, she was also critical of him on several key beliefs. Freud's notion of "penis envy" in particular was subject to criticism by Horney. She thought Freud had merely stumbled upon women's jealousy of men's generic power in the world. Horney accepted that penis envy might occur occasionally in neurotic women, but stated that "womb envy" occurs just as much in men: Horney felt that men were envious of a woman's ability to bear children. The degree to which men are driven to success may be merely a substitute for the fact that they cannot carry, nurture and bear children.
Horney was bewildered by psychiatrists' tendency to place so much emphasis on the male sexual organ. Horney also reworked the Freudian Oedipal complex of the sexual elements, claiming that the clinging to one parent and jealousy of the other was simply the result of anxiety, caused by a disturbance in the parent-child relationship. who is Harry Stack Sullivan? Herbert "Harry" Stack Sullivan was an American psychiatrist who extended Freudian psychoanalysis to the treatment of patients with severe mental disorders, particularly schizophrenia. He developed a model regarding failures in interpersonal relationships as being largely responsible for mental illnesses. In his words, it is the "interactional," not the "intrapsychic," forces that must be studied in order to find the causes, and develop treatments for, even the most severe psychoses. This search for satisfaction via personal involvement with others led Sullivan to characterize loneliness as the most painful of human experiences. His work, along with others such as Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, and Erik H. Erikson, laid the groundwork for understanding individuals based on their networks of social relationships. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness.It most commonly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking, and it is accompanied by significant social or occupational dysfunction. Theory of Personality Development the first mention of the "significant other" in psychological literature, Sullivan developed the "self system," a configuration of the personality traits developed in childhood, and reinforced by positive affirmation and the "security operations" developed to avoid anxiety and threats to self-esteem. Sullivan further defined this self system as a steering mechanism toward a series of "I-You" interlocking behaviors; that is, what an individual does is meant to elicit a particular reaction. Sullivan called these behaviors "parataxic integrations," and noted that such action-reaction combinations can become rigid and dominate an adult's thinking pattern, limiting his actions and reactions to relating to the world as he sees it, not as it really is. An important distinction between Sullivan and Freud involves the concept of anxiety. While Freud believed anxiety represented internal conflict between the id and the superego, Sullivan saw anxiety as existing only as a result of social interactions. Sullivan described techniques, such as selective inattention and personifications, similar to Freud's defense mechanisms, that provide ways for people to reduce social anxiety. Selective Inattention Sullivan believed that mothers express their anxiety about raising their children in a variety of ways. The child has no understanding or way to deal with this and so feels the anxiety himself. Selective inattention is the child's reaction to this, ignoring or rejecting the anxiety, or any interaction that could produce uncomfortable, anxious feelings in the child. Later as adults, this technique is used to focus our minds away from stressful situations. Personifications Sullivan suggested that individuals develop "personifications" of themselves and others as a result of social interactions and selective attention or inattention. Defense mechanisms reduce anxiety, but they can also cause a misperception of reality. Personifications, on the other hand, are mental images that help us understand ourselves and the world.
Sullivan described three basic ways we see ourselves, which he called the "bad-me," the "good-me," and the "not-me." The "bad-me" consists of the aspects of the self that one considers negative and therefore hides from others, and possibly even the self. This is sometimes called the "shadow," particularly in Carl Jung's system. Anxiety can result from recognizing the bad part of ourselves, for example, when remembering an embarrassing moment or experiencing guilt from a past action.
The "good-me" is all that seems positive and all that we like about ourselves. This is the part we share with the world because it produces no anxiety. The "not-me" part represents the aspects of ourselves that are so anxiety-provoking that we reject them as a part of us. The "not-me" is hidden from our awareness by being pushed deep into the unconscious. Developmental epochs In a similar fashion to Freud, Sullivan maintained that childhood experiences with other people are a large contributor to the adult personality, the mother playing the most significant role. He differed from Freud in his belief that the primary significance of the parent-child relationship was not predominantly sexual, but rather an early quest for security by the child. He also believed that the personality can continue to develop past adolescence and even well into adulthood.
Sullivan called these stages "developmental epochs," occurring in a particular order but with their timing determined by our social environment. The majority of Sullivan's focus revolved around the periods of adolescence, and he suggested that many adulthood problems arise from the turmoils of adolescence. The developmental epochs are:
Infancy (birth to 1 year)
Childhood (1 to 5 years old)
Juvenile (6 to 8 years old)
Preadolescence (9 to 12 years old)
Early Adolescence (13 to 17 years old)
Late Adolescence (18 to 22 or 23 years old)
Adulthood (23 years old and on)