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Transcript of Sanction Diplomacy
Which are the reasons for sanctioning?
1. to force cooperation with international Law
e.g. UN Resolution No. 661 on August 6, 1990
Part of coercive and deterrence diplomacy
Interruption of trade, military and scientific relations with an unfriendly country
Type of sanctions:
to destabilize and then to change a political regime
to modify a domestic life in a foreign country
to modify a foreign policy of a regime
to contain the aggressive behaviour of a state
2. to contain a threat to peace within a geographical boundary
e.g. 2010 Iran nuclear proliferation debate
3. United Nations Security Councils condemnation of actions of a specific action or policy of a member/non-member nation.
A bit of history...
The term 'sanction' originated in the 17th century, but did not permeated the statecraft till the late 19th cent.
League of Nations and then United Nations
"A nation that is boycotted is a nation that is in sight of surrender. Apply this economic, peaceful, silent, deadly remedy and there will be no need for force. It is a terrible remedy. It does not cost a life outside the nation boycotted, but it brings a pressure upon the nation which, in my judgment, no modern nation could resist."
-> Sanctions as alternative to military power
1990s sanctions became more popular and especially linked to International Organizations (role of the United Nations)
Were Sanctions to South Africa Effective?
UN arms embargo 1960s
OPEC oil embargo 1973
Multilateral sanctions 1985-1987, trade and financial
Foreign investment was withdrawn from South Africa
Need of change in the political regime
South Africa developed extensive measures to circumvent sanctions
Not all countries participated in the embargo
US Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act left out strategic materials, diamonds, and most forms of gold were omitted
The repression of the black majority continued and at times intensified.
1990: Mandela was released from prison and in 1994 became President of the new South Africa. He too said that sanctions played a significant role in bringing about the democratic transition
Economic crises already started
Different opinions among the scholars on the effectiveness of sanctions
• sanctions are likely to be most effective when they are used as part of a general armoury of weapons
• sanctions are very likely to be a long-drawn-out affair
• sanctions cannot easily be limited to the particular enemy in view
• there is always a danger that the effect of sanctions will exceed what is intended -> 'boomerang effect'
• the efficiency of sanctions will depend on the degree of universality with which they can be applied
• need to face clearly the task of re-construction that may be necessary if the sanctions are proved 'successful’
• to give as much attention to the terms of surrender necessary to secure the lifting of the boycott as to the efficiency of the embargo
Clémentine De Zotti &
Francesca Romana Bastianello
The United Nations
UN Security Council Sanctions Committees
The European Union
1. to implement UN sanctions more effectively
2. instrument of its common foreign policy
Are sanctions effective?
Only 5-30% of the sanctions applied were effective
Sanctions have been a tool of economic statecraft for thousands of years
Pericles 5th B.C.
For most of the 20th century, sanctions were rarely used
Cold War: USSR and US competing -> sanctions ineffective
-> BUT also US unilateral sanctions
then European Union too
Sanctions are also destructive to the targeted societies
Threats cost more when they fail
Cause stress and can affect one's rationality or problem-solving capacity and resistance -> message of indifference and hostility
Target more likely to impose sanctions to the sender
May generate a nationalistic response -> strengthen the leader support
Making Sanctions more effective
The targeted government faces domestic opposition
Sanctions are combined with incentives
To do a list of individuals and entities responsible for objectionable policies in targeted countries
If the target is the whole society: ban to strategic commodities (oil, petroleum...)
Economic and/or other sanctions NOT involving the use of armed force to international military action
In the UN Chart the word 'sanction' doesn't appear
Applied to: states, non-state actors, part of a conflict, region of a state
Increased role in the 1990s
1946 - 1990: UN introduced the sanctions twice
1990 - 2012: more than 40 resolutions
Case study 2: IRAQ
Full trade and financial sanctions against Iraq (UN Security Council Resolution 661)
1. an embargo on arms sales to Iraq,
2. an embargo on oil purchases from Iraq
3. wider embargo on economic contacts with Iraq
4. removal of weapons of mass destruction
BUT: none of the other sanctions (with the exception of the arms embargo)
was implemented in a rigid and absolute manner
6 August 1990 - May 2003
Goal: - to eliminate weapons of mass destruction and extended-
range ballistic missiles
- prohibiting any support for terrorism
- forcing Iraq to pay war reparations and all foreign debt
Belarus: after non democratic elections of 2006.
Renewed till 31 October 2014.
Against specific persons and entities.
Harsh effects on the population -> Oil for Food Program 1997
Sanctions which gave the US and UK control over Iraq's oil revenue were not removed until December 2010. Sanctions which require 5% of Iraq's oil and natural gas revenue to be paid to Kuwait as reparations for Saddam Hussain's invasion are still in effect.
Child death rates
Article 215 provides the legal basis for the interruption or reduction of the Union's economic and financial relations with one or more third countries
33 sanctions applied
To foster improvement of the principles of human rights, the rule of law and democracy.
Veto power in the UN -> more likely to be applied to small countries