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Transcript of Differentiation
Share Why is differentiation important? 39. They should also consider the extent to which the school intervenes to provide support for pupils, especially those that are at risk of underachieving.
Ofsted Handbook 2012 40. Inspectors should also look at the way the school identifies pupils who have special educational needs. They should find out whether pupils have been identified as having special educational needs, when in fact their progress has been hampered by weak teaching.
41. Inspectors should:
note if pupils who receive additional intervention are demonstrating accelerated or sustained progress. This would indicate whether the intervention is effective
Subsidiary guidance September 2012 Ofsted Teaching
Much of the teaching in all key stages and most subjects is outstanding and never less than consistently good. As a result, almost all pupils currently on roll in the school, including disabled pupils, those who have special educational needs and those for whom the pupil premium provides support, are making rapid and sustained progress.
All teachers have consistently high expectations of all pupils. They plan and teach lessons that enable pupils to learn exceptionally well across the curriculum.
Teachers systematically and effectively check pupils’ understanding throughout lessons, anticipating where they may need to intervene and doing so with notable impact on the quality of learning.
The teaching of reading, writing, communication and mathematics is highly effective and cohesively planned and implemented across the curriculum.
Teachers and other adults generate high levels of engagement and commitment to learning across the whole school.
Consistently high quality marking and constructive feedback from teachers ensure that pupils make rapid gains.
Teachers use well-judged and often inspirational teaching strategies, including setting appropriate homework that, together with sharply focused and timely support and intervention, match individual needs accurately. Consequently, pupils learn exceptionally well across the curriculum.
Ofsted Handbook 2012 Moral Purpose “The teacher’s overriding moral purpose is to meet the needs of students, even when it conflicts with personal preferences.”
(Lorna Earle, Assessment as Learning) Professional TEACHERS STANDARDS
2. Promote good progress and outcomes by pupils.
5. Adapt teaching to respond to the strengths and needs of all pupils. Simply stated, differentiated instruction allows each student to learn at the depth, complexity, and pace that is most beneficial to him/her. Differentiating curriculum and instruction is a rich and effective approach to use when providing for the needs of all students, including those with special education needs such as students with learning disabilities, gifted and talented students, and English language learners. Differentiation has come to mean “consistently using a variety of instructional approaches to modify content, process, and/or products in response to learning readiness and interest of academically diverse students.”
Carol AnnTomlinson, 'The Differentiated Classroom.' Differentiation Differentiation is not a curriculum. It is a way of thinking about teaching and learning. Differentiation is synonymous with good teaching. Remember "Most students, even those involved in special programming, spend the vast majority of their time in regular classrooms."
Alane J. Starko, 'Meeting the Needs of the Gifted Throughout the School Day': Techniques for Curriculum Compacting.
"Students vary in readiness, interest, and learning profile."
Carol Ann Tomlinson, 'The Differentiated Classroom'. How do you differentiate in your classroom? List ways on post-its. Share these with others on your table. Group these. outcome
(optional homework) When differentiating teaching, the three most important questions to continually ask yourself... What do I want my children to know, understand, and be able to do? What will I do instructionally to get my pupils to learn this? How will my pupils show what they know? In differentiated teaching:
differences are studied as a basis of planning.
pupil differences shape curriculum.
preassessment is typical.
multiple learning materials are available.
multiple options for pupils are offered.
pupils make sense of information.
emphasis on concepts and connections is made.
there is variable pacing.
pupils aid in setting goals and standards.
varied marking criteria are used.
excellence as an individual effort is celebrated. Differentiated teaching is not:
"another way of providing homogeneous grouping"
"tailoring the same suit of clothes"
From How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms by Carol Ann Tomlinson Differentiation is a teaching concept in which the classroom teacher plans for the diverse needs of students.
The teacher must consider differences such as:
learning styles, skill levels, and rates
background experiences and knowledge
ability to attend
social and emotional development
levels of abstraction
What do you already do with regard to differentiation?
What additional changes would be called for in your classroom to provide broader or richer differentiation?
What will you do with what you heard today?
What changes do you expect to see in your teaching?
What changes do you expect to see in your pupils? What do you know about curriculum differentiation?
What concerns or fears do you have regarding differentiation?
What would you like to learn more about? A differentiated classroom will have a combination of teacher directed, teacher selected activities, and learner centered, learner selected activities; whole class instruction, small group instruction, and individual instruction. Why does it work?
Differentiation increases the match between where the student is and what they are to learn. What goals are we trying to achieve through differentiation?
Increased academic learning
Increased confidence in learning
Enhanced intrinsic motivation for learning
Self-directed learning behaviors Thoughts for teacher planning
Try to operate the 80-20 rule.
teachers less tired and able to teach;
pupils more engaged and less dependent.
Look to identify the children who are going to need the extra support in the planning.
Flexible grouping is at the heart of differentiated teaching
'Fair' means that each pupil is doing the activity best suited for his or her learning. It does not mean that everyone is doing the same learning activity. The differentiated classroom Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom
The teacher is clear about what matters in the content area.
The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon pupil differences.
Assessment and teaching are inseparable.
The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to pupil readiness, interests, and learning profiles.
All pupils participate in respectful work.
Pupils and teachers are collaborators in learning.
Goals are maximum growth and continued success.
Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom What would I see? Make a poster to highlight key features of the differentiated classroom. Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky (1962) Varying levels of scaffolding
Varying degrees of challenge
Varying degrees of autonomy
= Optimal learning In your group briefly list some pros and cons for some of these methods of differentiation Pros and cons "the process by which curriculum objectives, teaching methods assessment methods, resources and learning activities are planned to cater for the needs of individual pupils"
The National Curriculum Council In a Differentiated Classroom…
Learning experiences are based on diagnosis of student readiness, interest, and/or learning profile
Content, activities, and products or other assessments are developed in response to differing needs of varied learners
Teaching and learning are focused on key concepts, understandings and skills
All students participate in "respectful" work
Teacher and students work together to ensure continual engagement and challenge for each learner
The teacher coordinates use of time, space, and activities
Flexible grouping ensures consistently fluid working arrangements, including whole class learning, pairs, triads, and quads, student-selected groups, teacher-selected groups, and random groups
Time use is flexible in response to student needs A variety of management strategies such as learning centers, interest centers, compacting, contracts, independent study, collegial partnerships, tiered assignments, and learning buddies are used to help target instruction to student needs
Clearly established individual and group criteria provide guidance toward success
Students are assessed in a variety of ways appropriate to demonstrate their own thought and growth Differentiated teaching is:
A blend of whole class teaching, group and individual teaching
multiple approaches to content, processes and product
rooted in assessment
qualatative not quantative