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Improving Word Knowledge: Word Recognition

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Caitlin Nelson

on 6 October 2014

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Transcript of Improving Word Knowledge: Word Recognition

Improving Word Knowledge: Word Recognition
Outline of Chapter 8
* Word Recognition is part of the Big 5. It is the ability to decode words. Skills include
knowing basic phonograms (e.g., sounds that letters represent) and applying them when reading text. Phonics instruction is a primary component of word recognition

* Many students with reading problems cannot recognize words accurately. They lack strategies for identifying unfamilar words. Without accurate word identification a student cannot comprehend a passage.

* It's important to remember that Reading is not a natural process, but a lenghtly process that requires careful instruction

*Struggling readers have difficulty with word recognition. They often use to much energy struggling to recognize the word, so there isn't much energy left to comprehend what they are reading.

* This chapter is aimed at helping students develop accurate word recognition through use of phonics and structural analysis.

*We will present an overview of the stages of word recognition development

1st Stage of Word Recognition: Logographic
Also known as VIsual cue reading stage
*Children identify words using only visual cues. They could use an actual logo picture that can help them remember.

*At this stage children pretend to read favorite stories and books by retelling. They are not actually “reading” the words, having not yet developed the understanding that letters within words convey important information for reading.

* They may recognize some letters or know some letter names, but still do not apply this knowledge to decoding words.

*Typical behaviors at this stage: Recognizes specific books by their covers, Pretends to read books, Labels objects in books, Comments on characters in books, Listens to stories, Recognizes print in the environment (for example, company logos), Knows that it is the print that is read in stories, and not the pictures, Understands and follows oral directions, Is sensitive to some sequences of events in stories, May begin to attend to rhyming words, May identify a few letters, especially those from their own name, May begin to attend to beginning sounds of words

2nd Stage of Word Recognition
Also known as the Phonetic cue recording stage

* In this stage student's focus on the beginning and end of a word. *Decoding at ths stage is slow so they still rely on picture cues,

*Their knowledge of what the story is about and the pictures that accompany the story are used heavily to help with word recognition, meaning they are still often guessing at words

*At this stage, children learn and master the letters of our alphabet, and the sounds associated with different letters. They are attempting to break the code of print and to a child at this stage, sounding out the words is reading.
3rd Stage of Word Recognition: Consolidated, alphabetic reading
Also known as controlled word recognition
* Student's now pay attention to vowels and the patterns that contain them.

* Because they have acquired accurate word recognition, they no longer tend to confuse similarly spelled words. However, word recognition is not yet automatic.

* During this stage, the reader still relies heavily on the text and focuses attention on every piece of visual information available, appearing to be “glued” to the print. Knowledge about spelling patterns that occur in English is crucial during this stage.

* Achievement of controlled word recognition, at least in the case of common words, probably occurs for most children by the end of the second grade.

* Typical behavior at this stage: Reads aloud with accuracy and comprehension any text that is appropriately designed for their level, Sounds out unknown words using knowledge of letters and the sounds they make, Recognizes common sight words (have, said, where, two), Monitors own reading and self-corrects when an incorrectly identified word does not fit with the surrounding words, Reads and comprehends both fiction and nonfiction that is appropriately designed for grade level, Discusses similarities in characters and events across grade appropriate stories, Reads and understands simple written instructions, Predicts and justifies what will happen next in stories, Discusses prior knowledge of topics in expository texts designed to inform or instruct the reader, Describes new information gained from texts in own words

4th level of Word Recognition: Sight Word Meaning
Also known as automatic word recognition
* Student's begin to recognize many words automatically without "sounding out" and develop a large store of sight words. Student's begin to focus on comprehension.

*This automatic word recognition plays a critical part in the rapid development of reading comprehension, as mental resources can now be focused on understanding text rather than on figuring out the words.

* Good readers will be able to automatically recognize most of the words in their spoken vocabularies.
There's an App for That!
Strategies for Identifying Words
The most common strategy is to identify the word from memory. We refer to this as sight words. (Chapter 9 talks about them more)

A second strategy is to match sounds to letter patterns and blend them to come up with a pronounciation.

A third strategy is to predict a word's pronunciation from the context of the passage - struggeling readers tend to be overly dependent on context because they do not have a large sight vocabulary and cannot decode words.

A fourth strategy (one used most by good readers) is to break a word into familar chunks and match the prounuciation of each chunk to words already known as sight words.
Word Recognition and The CCSS
The Common Core State Standards Initive (2010) does not explicitly address word recognition or mention phonics principles BUT the importance of word recognition is implicit in all standards.

The language Standards K-5 expect students to "demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English...when writing, speaking, reading or listening." So, student's must know how to identify words in order to demonstrate high levels of comprehension regarding word and sentence meaning and the conventions of standard English.

A student that struggles with decoding will not demonstrate mastery of the CCSS at any grade level or in any form of text. It is our job to help student's reach the high levels of comprehension.
Phonics Strategies
We have already talked a lot about the IRI. In what ways can giving an IRI help struggling readers?

Our books gives us another example of assessing knowledge of phonics principle. Creating a list of nonsense words called pseudowords can be a measure used to help with word identification skill.
Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests contains a section with these pseudowards.
pg. 179 in text


*Jennings, J. H., Caldwell, J. S., & Lerner, J. W. (2014). Reading Problems Assessment and Teaching Strategies (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

*Phonics Instruction: How to do a Making Words Lesson Louisiana Department of Education Webinar, June 2012. http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Webinars/Phonics%20Instruction_How%20to%20do%20a%20Making%20Words%20Lesson.pdf

*Reading Problems: Assessment and teaching strategies

*The Big 5 of Reading. http://www.carondeletcatholicschool.com/files/carondelet/files/Clark/TheBig5webpage.pdf


*YoforYouth. https://www.y4y.ed.gov/learn/literacy/introduction/stage-1-visual-cue-word-recognition

Teaching Phonics Strategies
A systematic approach has been proven to show more student growth than unsystematic approaches.

One effective strategy to use is: Provide the class with the same instruction and then give struggling readers extra time and one on one guidance after the main instruction.

Effective phonics instruction include:
1. Builds on concepts about how print functions ( print is the primary source of communication and not pictures)
2. Builds on a foundation of phonemic awareness
3. Instruction is clear and direct with examples, explanations, and modeling
4. Integration into the total reading program
5. Focuses on reading the words instead of learning rules
6. Includes word families and decoding by correlations
7. Invented spelling practice
8. Focuses on internal structure of words which develops word recognition strategies
9. Automatic word recognition skills

Letter-Sound Relationships
• Instruction should guide the student through letter identification with the sound the letter makes.

• To build on instruction the educator should focus on the letter groupings and the different sounds the letter groups make.

Organizing Phonics Instruction
Letter- sound Patterns:

Consonants: Have dependable sounds; this means their sound does not usually change with its location in a word
Example: c- cab, tic

o Teach consonants first with simple vowel sounds. Ensure to focus on the ending consonant as much as the beginning consonant
Example: the word bed (focus on the b and d not just the b sound)

Vowels: Vowels will be an emphasis second because their sounds are variable depending on the consonant; and are often referred to as phonograms

• Teaching Phonograms
o Start with consonant vowel patterns that are used frequently in the language
o Move from simple phonograms to more complex phonograms
o Work through word families
o Common phonograms on table 8.2 page 183 ( textbook)

Decoding Through Analogy

o Research indicates that the majority of students learn phonics by recognizing patterns in similar or known words, not by learning rules

o When a student or person comes across a large word they don’t know they will break the word up into sounds and/or word parts from words already know

o When struggling readers come across a word they do not know prompt them with: “does this word look like a word you already know?”
 If the child cannot think of a word prompt them with a word that has similar elements in it.

Programs to help decoding:
o Teacher will clearly model frequently, utilize a word wall to show what they have learned, building words through games, reading new text, and writing frequently

o The Benchmark Word Identification/ Vocabulary Development Program:

 Stresses use of context clues and decoding by analogy
 Teaches decoding by key spelling patterns
• Teacher will introduce key words with common vowel patterns
o Students will practice until they are sight words
o Students will chant each letter of the word
o Words will be displayed on a word wall
• Teacher will model during think alouds in a story on how to identify unknown words ( using a word already known, and context clues)

Combining Phonics and Meaning

o Cross checking:
The man _______ a blue jacket today.

o What might the missing word be?
o Write down suggestions that fit

o Uncover letter by letter and cross out words that do not fit
o Can use this strategy in small group or whole group

Monitor for Meaning

Students should stop frequently and ask:
o Did what I read make sense?
o Can I retell what I read in my own words?
o Are there any words that I don’t understand?
o Are the sentences confusing?

It is helpful to have a sign on their desk, sign on the wall in the classroom, or a bookmark to use that provides the questions listed above so student's can refer to them.

Words Their Way ( textbook)

What Really Matters in Vocabulary ( textbook)



Razkids app

Reading Rockets; Helping Struggling Readers

Reading Remedies

* Read Strong
: A website that helps parents, teachers, and student's develop skills that they need to become efficient readers.

For teachers: http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Wilson-PhonicsActivities.html

For parents: http://www.readingrockets.org/helping

For students; https://www.abcmouse.com/landing/SEM:GOOG?gclid=CMKhxODAkcECFQoEaQodnoAAsw

Making Students aware of their strategies:

To fully master any strategy, students need to be fully aware of what the process is that they are doing.

You must model over and over again- it takes time and repetition for it to sink in.

A strategy to remember strategies- create bookmarks with a strategy on it for the students to keep in their book.

Creating boards for students to reference with strategies on it.

“Thinking Tree” students add leaves with strategies on it as they learn them.

Ask students about the strategies- review

While learning phonics strategies, make students aware of exceptions to the rules!

Example: Silent e, words such as love and have, exception to the rule that the first vowel takes the long vowel sound when the second vowel is silent

Struggling readers- engage by helping with lists/boards

“Don’t play fair” board

Making Word Strategies
There is a making words App!


First: say letter and sounds
Second: make the words
Third: Sound out the word
Fourth: Use the word in a sentence, give feedback every time!
Regular Reading Phonics Patterns
Read, read, read!

Students with reading problems can profit from text that is repetitive and consistent in nature.

Use all types of text in class!

A Hippopotamus Sandwich
A hippo sandwich is easy to make.
All you do is simply take
One slice of bread,
One slice of cake,
Some mayonnaise
One onion ring,
One hippopotamus
One piece of string,
A dash of pepper —
That ought to do it.
And now comes the problem…
Biting into it!

Struggling students will have problems for a few reasons:

1) scared by long words and will refuse to try them
2) students forget to use phonics skills when they get to a long word
3) limited vocabulary, unable to make sense of even smaller parts of the word

Making words grow- strategy that can help struggling readers see that large words can be made up from smaller words. See table 8.3 in the book. You can turn it into a game wher they see how long they can make their list!

Teaching Multisyllabic words:
Word Sorts

Consonant blends/clusters: Two or three adjacent consonants that hold their own sound. For example: br – brown, sp-spell
Consonant digraphs: Two or three adjacent consonants that make a new sound. For example: sh- shut
Short vowels: Are vowels that say their own sound and are surrounded by consonants (CVC pattern). For example: a – rat, fat, ran
Long vowels: Are vowels that say their letter name, and there are two main types
1. Consonant/Vowel/Consonant/ final e pattern: like ( I says its letter name) note ( O says its letter name)
2. Vowel Digraphs: Two adjacent vowels that say the first vowels letter name: beat ( E says they both say its letter name) brain ( a says its letter name)
Vowel Diphthongs: Starts with one vowel sound and moves to another. Example: how, dew
R- Controlled Vowels: When the letter R follows a vowel it influences the way the vowel sounds. Example comparisons: fat- far
• Teachers/ educators need to know the terminology not the students
• Students need to know the letter sounds and letter patterns
Terminology to Understand Letter-Sound Relationships:
Alpha Tots
Kindergarten Reading, Tracing and Spelling- Learn to Read First Words
First Words 7+2- Early Reading A to Z
Tools for Teaching Reading and Spelling Reading Doctor COmplete Phonics $79.99
Word Builder- Learn Letter Sound Pattern for Reading and Spelling $19.99

Struggling readers still working on phonics sounds songs.

Games example for struggling readers:

What sounds is missing?
Two sounds
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