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Federate the colonies?
Transcript of Federate the colonies?
Many of you are thinking to not count the Aboriginal people in the census, this would effectively deny them membership of the Australian community.
However, eventually federation will include the Indigenous Australians.
Even though Federation may have a negative effect on the Indigenous Australians, by changing a few rules and ethics, Indigenous Australians could feel included and accepted in what they feel a belonging nation.
By bestowing them with the ability and right to vote this can change and help the nation improve even more in the future. Everyone who lives in Australia should have the right to vote and their opinion because we Australia is like a team, a team of everyone to make the country the best place to live.
If Indigenous Australians have the right to vote, federation will be even a bigger success and will help bring all the colonies together as one.
Establishment of colonies
THE MAKING OF A NATION
Gold brought enormous growth in wealth and population to the Australian colonies. The period between 1860 to 1890 is known as 'the long boom'. It was a period of great expansion and development in the mining and pastoral industries. The capital cities expanded and many new towns developed in regional areas.
The gold rush helped distinguish New Holland and helped boost its economy, travel, population and trade enormously!
The impact of the 1850's gold rushes was most significant for Victoria, the colony that included the mining towns of Ballarat, Bendigo and Castlemaine. By the end of the 1850's, Melbourne was one of the wealthiest cities of the British empire, with the colony producing about one-third of the worlds gold and making up half of Australia's European population.
The gold rushes had a lasting affect on Australia. The population increased from 437 000 to 1.1 million during the 1850's. Gold money helped to establish overseas trade, improve transport and build roads so that more inland areas could be opened up to farming. It also gave the colonies great sudden wealth and and boosted their populations.
Stamping each colony with different cultures which will shape Australian identity in the future should federation take place would only help the new nation become a multicultural society.
Significance of Gold Rush
Why the colonies should federate?
The Eureka Stockade was a war between the miners and the authorities during the 1850's gold rush in Victoria. The miners felt that the rules that the government set were unfair. The rules were that the miners could not own the land they mined on, which meant that they could be located to different places whenever the government felt like it, and another rule was that the miners had to pay for a license and carry it around with them everywhere, otherwise they would be fined.
In late November, 1854, police stormed the mines to assert their laws more clearly. However, the miners were appalled and refused to co-operate, and they burned their licenses. Many miners were killed.
The Eureka Stockade is now viewed as the birthplace of Australia's political system. It is possible to see the full extent of its impact. Freedom of speech, the right to vote and political equality are the hallmarks of the historic uprising. As Robert Menzies later said: "The Eureka revolution was an earnest attempt at democratic government."
Although a political triumph for the miners the Eureka Rebellion also kick-started the initial stages of the White Australia Policy. Increased Chinese immigration to the goldfields created an atmosphere of competition. The influx of "a pagan and inferior race" to the goldfields as a serious problem. As Australia developed, this issue gave rise to the country's greatest immigration embarrassment, the White Australia Policy.
The Argus, 19 December 1854:
500 miners gathered under the Eureka flag on November 30, 1854, and elected Peter Lalor as their leader. They promised to fight against police and military. After the vow, they built a stockade at Eureka and lay in wait for the police and military to attack.
On 3 December 1854, there was a massive battle between police and miners. The miners had planned their battle strategy carefully and well, however without the proper weapons they were no match for the police and military. Only 6 of the police and troopers were killed, however 125 miners were taken prisoner, many badly wounded, and there were at least 22 deaths among the miners and diggers.
Although the miners suffered many casualties, they succeeded in the sense that they did manage to change the way the government managed the miners. In the end, miners were given the right to own the land that they worked on. Miners also had to pay taxes on the amount of gold they found, and not on the possibility of finding gold.
When the first European settlement was made at Sydney Cove in 1788, there was no official recognition that the land was already inhabited.
Interestingly enough, Captain James Cook wrote of the Indigenous people in his diary. He made references to people who were "in the pure state of nature" and whom are "far happier than [the] Europeans".
There was a general belief amongst the British that since the Aborigines did not own the land, they could not sell it. They did not fence the land, farm it or build on it. This caused the Europeans to believe that they had no rights to the land.
Unfortunately, little did they understand the Aborigines strong bond and connection with the island, which was the source of all their physical, social and spiritual needs.
Due to the expansion of the colonies, the Indigenous Australians traditional hunting areas and food sources were disturbed. Food became scarcer due to the land being cleared for agriculture.
This resulted in warfare between Aboriginal groups whom found it extremely difficult to live harmoniously with their hunter-gatherer ways as they had for thousands of years before European settlement.
Due to the Aborigines being nomadic hunter-gatherers, they faced a serious risk of starvation, because colonization prevented them from roaming freely over their lands in search of food. Many of those who survived were forced into slavery, and entire tribes died out completely.
Aborigines numbered in the hundreds of thousands when Australia was discovered, but their numbers dropped dramatically soon after colonization. Because of this disruption, much of Aboriginal culture and history has been lost.
An estimated Indigenous population of up to 30 000 at the time of settlement in 1835 had shrunk to 3000 to 5000 by 1850.
Aboriginal groups were pushed from their land, as the European settlers spread across the country. Thereafter, indigenous-owned and occupied lands were stolen by force. Many indigenous people were massacred and others were driven from their land.
The majority of indigenous Australians remain dispossessed and landless.
The Indigenous people often reacted angrily to these intrusions. some Aborigines speared the settlers, attacked the farms and stole or killed livestock. In turn, the settlers got their revenge by attacking the tribe they thought had attacked them first.
This led to widespread hatred and prejudice towards the Indigenous Australians. With the general belief among officials that the Aboriginal people would eventually die out, they developed a a new protection policy, sometimes referred to as 'smooth the dying pillow.' In truth though, this only stripped them of their independence, self-confidence and traditional culture.
Western Australia was established in 1827 and proclaimed a British penal settlement in 1849 with the first convicts arriving in 1850. The main reason of British settlement was the fear that the French were interested in colonising the area. Rottnest Island, off the coast of Perth, became the colony's convict settlement in 1838 and was used for local colonial offenders.
Just under 10,000 British convicts were sent directly to the colony in the 18 years to 1868. They were used by local settlers as labour to develop the region. On January 9, 1868, Australia's last convict ship, the Hougoumont unloaded the final 269 convicts.
The population of the settlement grew slowly. The drastic short of labour, meant that convicts were sent to Western Australia to meet the demands of the labour requirements. The convicts worked on public buildings, roads, bridges and even prisons. This meant that their contribution played a big role in the development of Western Australian towns.
Based on a plan by Edward Gibbon Wakefield to create an ideal society, South Australia was settled in 1836 on the banks of the Adelaide’s Torrens River. South Australia was founded with the aim of recreating the best elements of the British homeland.
Designed by surveyor Colonel William Light, Adelaide was one of the first towns built. The regular grid of streets and the border of parklands surrounding the city make Adelaide one of the best planned cities in the world. The colony was to be convict free, land was to be sold at a reasonable price and the revenue was to be used to bring out emigrants who would become a laboring class.
The early economy of the new town relied primarily on sheep farming. Wine growing regions were established in the 1840s. Copper was discovered near Kapunda in 1842. This brought more migrants to South Australia and assisted the economy.
New South Wales
The Port Phillip District (Victoria)
The first attempt to settle what would become Victoria was made at Sorrento near the mouth of Port Phillip Bay in 1803. Unfortunately, due to the lack of fresh water the Sorrento settlement was abandoned after only a few months. In comparison to the New South Wales, Tasmania or Queensland settlement, the colonization of Victoria was driven by free settlers rather than convicts.
Apart from the early attempts at settlement, the only convicts sent directly to Victoria from Britain were about 1,750 convicts known as the 'Exiles'. They arrived between 1844 and 1849. They were also referred to as the 'Pentonvillians' because most of them came from Pentonville Probationary Prison in England. Due to being established as a free settlement, convicts were never a significant part of the population.
The Port Phillip colony grew quickly largely because of profits from wool. Melbourne developed as a processing center and port for the export of wool. By 1850, it was an impressive city with 22 000 people, with many fine streets and buildings, art galleries, theatres, hospitals and schools, and beautiful botanical gardens.
In 1859 Queensland separated from New South Wales and the penal colony at Redcliffe that was established by Lieutenant John Oxley, in 1824, moved to the site now called Brisbane. Brisbane was established in 1825 as a penal settlement for the more intractable convicts.
The main inhabitants of 'Brisbane Town', as it was known, were the convicts of the Moreton Bay Penal Station until it was closed in 1839. Around 2,280 convicts were sent to the settlement between 1824 and 1839.
Originally, free settlers were forbidden from moving into the areas, but it became increasingly hard to stop them. Fertile soil and good grazing pastures, appealed to the colonists from New South Wales. As a result, in 1838 the decision was made to allow free settlers into the area and the following year the penal colony was closed.
Established in 1788, New South Wales was settled at first by 850 convicts and their Marine guards and officers, led by Governor Arthur Phillip. The First Fleet was led by Captain Arthur Phillip who later assumed the role of governor of New South Wales from arrival until 1792.
The first settlement of New South Wales was at Botany Bay and the second was established at Norfolk Island to provide wood for ships and masts.
The harsh landscape and the settlers’ lack of experience made farming difficult for the first settlers. In its first two years, the colony became very close to collapsing through inadequate shelter, starvation, lack of appropriate equipment. They were eagerly waiting on the arrival of the Second Fleet to bring necessary supplies.
By the 1830s, there was a growing move to bring out free settlers and assisted migrants who would form a laboring class but eventually become land owners. Many of these assisted migrants eventually became influential citizens in the colonies. One was Sir Henry Parkes who became Premier of New South Wales and led the federation movement.
Federation would help grow New South Wales' agricultural industry.
Van Diemen's Land
A united defence force could better protect Australia. It would also be better equipped to deal with matters of foreign policy.
Currently, each colony has its own militia consisting of a small permanent force and volunteers, however each colony relies on the British navy to periodically patrol the vast coastline of the island. Increasingly, many of us fear the colonies could be vulnerable to attack from nations such as Germany, France and Russia.
Australia's position as a sparsely-populated continent close to Asia also gives rise to concerns that countries such as China and Japan, with their larger populations and greater military might, could overrun the colonies.
Alfred Deakin, then Chief Secretary of Victoria, warned: 'The Asiatic wave which has threatened to engulf us is only suspended for a short time, but if the colonies do not federate our comparatively trifling white population will be swept before it like a feather'.
This argument that a united defense force could better protect Australia is strengthened by a recent report released by British Major-General Sir J. Bevan Edwards. It found that the colonies do not have enough soldiers, arms or even ammunition to adequately defend themselves. The report recommended a federal or centralised defence force be established.
A significant argument in favour of Federation is the need for a uniform rail system. Despite developments in the railway system which allowed even many remote areas to be reached by rail by the late 1800s, progress is ultimately restricted by each colony having a different rail gauge (width of the track).
Victoria's was 1.6 metres, New South Wales' was 1.43 metres, and Queensland's rail gauge was 1.07 metres. Each colony worked independently, therefore the same gauge for all colonies was not discussed. Without a uniform rail gauge, trains could not cross colonial borders.
This meant that to get to another colony, people had to switch trains, which was an annoying hassle. People involved in inter-colonial trade were also hindered by the different sizes of the rail gauges, because they had to unload and load all their goods onto the next train every time they wanted to cross colonial borders.
At a time when trains are the main means of long-distance land transport, having to change trains at the border of each colony is a great inconvenience for people travelling. Those involved in inter-colonial trade are also hindered by the rail system, having to unload and reload goods and produce at each border.
The need for free trade between the colonies and an overarching government to ensure that it was fair was another reason behind support for Federation. During the 1860s the Victorian government realised that goods from overseas and from other colonies were being produced at a cost which their own industries could not equal.
Currently, the policy of protectionism which involves imposing customs duties (government taxes or tariffs) on incoming goods, makes them more expensive to consumers than local goods. This encourages consumers to buy items produced inside the colony, therefore 'protecting' employment and industries.
These taxes, however, have created substantial tension between the colonies. The New South Wales government is particularly opposed to tariffs. It believes in free trade as the best philosophy for the most efficient use of scarce resources. A number of people are also concerned that import taxes may even jeopardise foreign relations by discouraging overseas companies from trading with Australia altogether.
Growing national pride
The growth in national pride towards the end of the 19th century has served as a considerable factor in securing Federation in Australia. It was not until the 1870s when the percentage of the non-Indigenous population born in Australia began to exceed the number born in the British Isles, that people in the colonies began to consider themselves as something other than British. Unlike their ancestors, they were no longer as interested in wearing the British fashion and composing artworks, poems and songs about Britain.
The 'Advance Australia Fair' song has displayed that national pride was already forming two decades ago.
Cricket has also instilled a feeling of national pride in Australians when the best cricketers from each colony went on to play in a Test match in London in 1882 where they defeated England by seven runs.
Colonists mostly share a common language, culture and heritage, and increasingly began to identify as Australian rather than British. New South Wales Premier, Sir Henry Parkes, referred to this as 'the crimson thread of kinship that runs through us all'.
In fact, over three-quarters of the population were Australian-born. Many people have moved between the colonies to find work and sporting teams have begun to represent Australia. In 1899 soldiers from the colonies who went to the Boer War in South Africa served together as Australians. This shift was also apparent in contemporary songs and poems which celebrated Australia and Australians.
Consequently, lets federate and create a nation of unity.
The story of Australia's progress from convict dumping grounds to possibly a democratic nation is a dramatic and exciting one. The six colonies were all settled separately from England. They shared many common characteristics - culture, language, diet, political systems and religion.
They also had similar recognition for the rights of the original inhabitants of the country.
During the second half of the 19th century, the colonists became increasingly aware of what they shared. The idea of nationhood began to grow. In the last decade of the century, a series of conventions and gatherings led to the development of Australian Federal Constitution. On 1st January 1901, the first Australian Parliament was opened at the Exhibition Building in Melbourne.
In 1803, the island was colonized by the British and became a penal colony. Named after the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), Van Diemen’s Land officially became known as Tasmania in 1856.
Around 75,000 convicts were transported to Van Diemen’s Land, or about 40% of all convicts sent to Australia. Male convicts were assigned labor to free settlers or groups allocated to public works. Female convicts were servants in free settler households or sent to a female factory (women’s workhouse prison). One of the harshest of the convict settlements, difficult convicts (mostly re-offenders) were sent to a prison known as Port Arthur.
Over the next 20 years, the colony prospered and developed. This was due to the free settlers and ex-convicts who helped to establish sheep-grazing industries and sealing and whaling stations. Industries such as brewing, brick-making and milling also developed.
Achieving the right to self-government in 1854 saw Van Diemen’s Land break free from New South Wales (which it had been a part of) and become a colony in its own right.
Colonel William Light
Governor Arthur Phillip
My fellow Australians, today I will share with you the reasons why you should vote in favour of the new referendum for Australia to become a Federation.
A nation is a centrally governed country in which there is a sense of unity and belonging. Nations usually share common territory and language. Their people tend to have a common background, shared cultures and values and united aspirations about the future. These characteristics apply to the colonies of New Holland, as a result the only way to move forward is to become a federated nation.
The benefits of becoming a nation are numerous!
Throughout this prezi I will highlight the key reasons as to why federation would benefit the people. The shared belief that a single, unified country could provide ordinary people with the chance to create a new and superior society is marvelous.
I have a vision of a nation that includes the best qualities from our British heritage, while providing opportunities for everyone, not just the privileged few.
Much can be gained by uniting the separate colonies to form a nation. The idea of separating from 'the mother country' is a logical step for the colonies, especially since many of you are now Australian born.
Opposition to the Chinese was often greatest among the European diggers and working men who felt that their chances of finding gold, jobs and women to marry were threatened.
As farming and other industries in the emerging towns developed during and in the wake of gold prospecting, European men sometimes felt threatened by competition for jobs. In areas of employment where Europeans and Chinese had similar skills such as carpentry, steps were taken to protect the European tradesmen from cheap Chinese labour.
Labour laws were introduced that required all furniture made by Chinese hands to be stamped "Asian Labour Only". However the Chinese were generally left undisturbed to pursue what were considered traditional Chinese jobs such as market gardening and herbalism.
Chinese Migration to Australia
"The most harrowing and heartrending scenes amongst the women and children I have witnessed through this dreadful morning. Many innocent persons have suffered, and many are prisoners who were there at the time of the skirmish but took no active part [...] At present every one is as if stunned, and but few are seen to be about. The flag of the diggings, "the Southern Cross," as well as the "Union Jack," which they had to hoist underneath, were captured by the foot police."
– The Argus, 19 December 1854
Australia's emergence as a nation in 1901 was the result of the inspiration and effort of a wide range of colonists in the cities and bush. As the colonies developed, there was growing recognition that Australia was a land with a great and optimistic future. There were hundreds of thousands of ordinary men and women whom played equally important roles in building and shaping the nation. Below are 4 people who promoted federation and assisted to develop the idea.
William Guthrie Spence (1846-1921)-
Willaim Guthrie Spence is known as the father of the Australian trade union movement. In the 1880's he was a key figure in the formation of Australia-wide unions for miners and shearers. After the depression in the 1890's, employers tried to cut back on these gains. Spence then formed the Australian Workers Union, which covered miners, shearers and rural workers. Spence was a strong supporter of federation and was elected to the first Australian parliament in 1901.
Sir Henry Parkes (1815 - 1896)-
Born in England, Sir Henry Parkes emigrated to Australia with his wife in 1839. Parkes earned his title "Father of Federation" following his famous Tenterfield speech in 1839. However he proposed the idea of federation as early as 1867 at an intercolonial conference. In 1891, Parkes was appointed chairman of the National Australian Convention. Parkes continued to promote the idea of unity and always argued strongly for federation. Parkes died from pneumonia but five years later, the cause he had championed so strongly, federation became a reality.
John Feltham Archibald (1856- 1919) -
John Feltham Archibald was a key figure in the literary and publishing life of the Australian colonies in the late 1800's and early 1900's. He played a significant role in raising awareness of an Australian national identity. Archibald died in 1919 having left a bequest for an annual portrait prize. The Archibald prize has become one of Australia's most prestigious art awards.
Catherine Helen Spence (1825- 1910)-
Scottish born Catherine Helen Spence was one of Australia's earliest feminists. Spence was also the first woman to preach in a South Australian church and she worked hard to arrange foster homes for abandoned or at risk children. It was no surprise that Spence would be at the forefront of the movement of people to gain votes for women. Spence was a strong supporter of proportional representation in parliament and campaigned on this issue until her death in 1910.
People who shaped the nation
Sir Henry Parkes
Catherine Helen Spencer
Wiliam Gutherie Spence
John Feltham Archibald
Art and Literature
In the 19th century, Australians began to show their growing national identity through art and literature. New styles that were distinctively Australian stood out.
In the early 19th century, painters tended to see the Australian landscape through European eyes. Landscapes were usually dark and hostile. Human figures tended to be dwarfed by high mountains or trees. Town scenes were often similar to those found in Britain. Cottages were quaint and the people were neatly dressed.
It was not until the 1870's and 1880's that artists began to show the landscape and people as they really were. A new body of literature also reflected these Australian themes and subjects. Like the artists, early 19th century writers tended to portray Australia as an alien and threatening place. By the 1880's and 1890's, poets and storytellers were writing positively about Australia.
New words and pronunciation naturally weaved itself into Australian colloquialisms, making the language uniquely Australian.
Towards the end of the 19th century, paintings and stories that reflected British themes and styles were still popular. With the process of federation taken into consideration, the new body of of Australian material was becoming increasingly popular with ordinary Australian colonists. Australian art and literature reflected the developing sense of identification with Australia. It also stimulated positive feelings about the environment and way of life, and it played a role in the growing movement towards the creation of a nation.
To make federation possible, VOTE YES!
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