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First Aid

How to identify and administer first aid treatment for heart attack, stroke and electrocution.
by

Sarah White

on 18 July 2011

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Transcript of First Aid

First Aid Heart Attack Stroke Electrocution An electric shock occurs when a person comes into contact with an electrical energy source. Electrical energy flows through a portion of the body causing a shock. Exposure to electrical energy may result in no injury at all or may result in devastating damage or death. ...occurs when the supply of blood to the brain is suddenly disrupted killing brain cells because they are no longer receiving the oxygen and nutrients they need. First Aid Treatment 6. Encourage the victim not to move and reassure them help is on the way to care for them. First Aid Treatment... First Aid Treatment Increased or irregular heart rate
Heartburn and indigestion
Sudden weakness
Dizziness, fainting, nausea
Shortness of breath
Anxiety, nervousness
Cold, sweaty skin, paleness or pallor FAST!
Facial weakness – can the person smile, has their mouth or eyes drooped?
Arm weakness – can the person raise both arms?
Speech difficulty – can the person speak clearly and understand what you say?
Time to act – act FAST and call 000 immediately NOTE:
Be alert for the presence of water or conducting materials that they may be in contact with
DO NOT touch the casualty’s bare skin
Only proceed when it is safe to do so. Nobody wants another casualty. 5. Assess the casualties RESPONSE:
Can you hear me?
Open your eyes
What’s your name?
Squeeze my hand 9. Minimise shock
Keep the casualty warm
Protect from the extremities Severe pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain as indicated on the images the most common symptom... other symptoms... General malaise (feeling vague, lethargic, uneasy) 1. Clear area, make sure no one is crowding around the person 2. Call 000 immediately 3. If possible, ask if the patient has angina, as the symptoms are very similar. If the patient has been diagnosed with angina:
follow the instructions they have been given by their doctor
administer medication, e.g. prescribed nitroglycerin pills
if there is anything unusual about the attack, do not hesitate to call 000 4. Make the casualty as comfortable as possible 5. Reassure and calm the casualty 6. Monitor their vital signs 7. If the casualty stops breathing, begin CPR immediately
(2 Breaths, 30 Compressions) 8. Treat for shock Heart Attack
Stroke
Electrocution 1. Call 000 immediately 2. Check and monitor the victim’s airway, breathing, and circulation 3. Lay the victim down with their head and shoulders slightly elevated. This will reduce blood pressure on the brain. 4. If the victim is unresponsive but breathing, place them on their left side with their chin extended. This serves as two purposes. It will assist in keeping the victim’s airway open and allow vomit and secretions to drain from their mouth. 5. Never give a suspected stroke victim anything to eat or drink. Signs and Symptoms (NOTE: Lightning is a form of electrocution) Tingling or numbness Pain Headache Minor... Major! Burns, particularly where the energy entered and exited the body Problems with sight,
swallowing or
hearing Tetany
Seizures
Fractures/ dislocations Palpitations
Shallow, irregular or absent breathing
Respiratory arrest Dazed/confused state
Altered mental state
Amnesia Coma Manage DANGER! 2. Stay well clear until the power is cut off. 1. Notify the emergency services IMMEDIATELY 3. Break the current by switching off at the socket and pulling the plug out, or turning off the main switch at the fuse box. Do not use the switch on the appliance. 4. If the current cannot be switched off, stand on dry, insulating material and use a dry, non-conductible material to gently move the casualty away from the source. 6. Unconscious/Not responding
Carefully roll the casualty into the lateral position
Clear the airway
Check for breathing (look, listen, feel)
If they are not breathing, begin CPR (2 breaths, 30 compressions) 7. Seek medical assistance
While waiting for medical assistance to arrive, monitor and record vital signs (Airway, Breathing, Circulation and level of consciousness) 8. Treat burns
Place the burn under gently running, cool water for at least 20 minutes
Remove contaminated or constrictive clothing, footwear or jewellery, unless it is sticking to the skin
Cover with a clean, non-stick sterile dressing
DO NOT: break blisters, attempt to remove things in, or stuck to the burns, use lotions and creams
REMEMBER: the burns may be worse than you first think! First Aid Training Manual Bibliography Active First Aid
7th Edition,

Australian Lifesaving Academy http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Heart_attack_explained
http://www.holisticonline.com/remedies/heart/heart_attack_identifying.htm
http://www.healthcentral.com/heart-disease/patient-guide-44510-6.html
http://www.ehealthmd.com/library/heartattack/ha_symptoms.html
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/HeartAttack/HeartAttack_WhatIs.html
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advice/facts/heartattack.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-heart-attack/fa00050

http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Stroke_signs_and_symptoms?open
http://www.mydr.com.au/heart-stroke/stroke-signs-symptoms-and-treatment
http://home.vicnet.net.au/~stroke/WhatIsStroke.htm
http://brainfoundation.org.au/a-z-of-disorders/107-stroke
http://www.strokefoundation.com.au/index2.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=22&pop=1&page=0&Itemid=115

http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/e/electrocution/symptoms.htm#symptom_list
http://www.tpub.com/content/armymedical/MD0576/MD05760040.htm
http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/injury/electrical-injury/overview.html
http://palm.skynetmd.com/skymain_search.cfm?p=&v=2&li=palm&name=Electrocution
Full transcript