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Lean at the University of St Andrews MASTER COPY 14 Jan 2014

from the University of St Andrews Lean Team

Lean Team

on 12 March 2014

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Transcript of Lean at the University of St Andrews MASTER COPY 14 Jan 2014

Lean at the University of St Andrews
The St Andrews Lean Team
The right environment
Our Process
The 'No time' conversation
Quad of Aims
Current State Mapping
'If you can see it,
you can fix it'
Ideas Generation
Action List
Interim State - Future State
Continuous Improvement
Respect for People
Student Status Letters
Estates Job Tracking
Finance Accounts Payable
They say "Hmmm, yes, it is a good idea that we do this, its really important, but there's exams, ... then holidays, then matriculation, and then, ... well, last year there was lots of snow, oh, Christmas of course, then the students are back, um, um, Fred is going away, ....".

We say "So, no time is a good time then?"

They say "Yes, you're right"

We say "So, if this is as important as you say,
and no time is a good time,
we may as well do it now"

They say "Oh, yes, yes, you're right"
Working on
Taking action
The right people continuously searching for the simplest and smoothest process in order to meet customer needs perfectly
a diet
a computer thing
a silver bullet
just about the "process"
Lean is ...
... and Lean is not ...
Maximise Value
Non-Value Adding
but necessary
As the customer sees it
Only do that which adds value for the customer
Understand all work as a process
Create smooth flow
Respond to Pull
Give your customer what they need
When they need it
Not what, or when, is convenient to you
Aim for
Exam diet ... or continuous assessment?
Expenses as you go ... or monthly?
Nothing happens in isolation (or shouldn't!)
Does the left hand know what the right hand is doing?
Understand what your customer needs (internal and external)
Understand the reason for the process (measure, map, question)
Redesign your process (to meet needs ... no more no less)
Implement that process (and you thought the first three were hard!)
Continuous Improvement
Respect for People
168 Properties
Estates Overview:
To volunteer or not?
"Patience and tenacity are worth more than twice their weight of cleverness."
Thomas Huxley
People will behave irrationally
"There's no evidence whatsoever that men are more rational than women. Both sexes seem to be equally irrational."
Albert Ellis
Just common sense?
"Le sens commun est fort rare."
"Common sense is not so common"
Continuous Improvement
Respect for People
5 Principles
Not an artificial target
Not 'that will do'
Not 'that's what others are doing'
Aien Aristeuein 'ever to excel'
Lean Universities
If you do what you've always done,
you'll get what you've always got
Why Lean at St Andrews?
We needed to get more efficient and effective (and we still do)
Everything can and must get better
It is everyone's job to improve
Looking for a means of managing change that suited the University's ethos
Project Team issues:
Project Outcomes
PC and Printer provision/access resolved during Lean project
Greater awareness of component parts of process and impact of flow
Immediate saving of 4.5 FTE (£135,000) - And, NO job losses
Estates effectively get 6 additional tradesmen - At NO cost
It's a long term thing
Not get fobbed off (surprisingly hard!)
We ...
Impact of staffing levels (Is this just a way to cut jobs?)
Lack of follow through from Management
Timesheets – account for 36.25 hpw - why do we need them?
General concern of buy-in from peers
190 members of staff
467 Emergency call out requests
16,269 Maintenance request last year
Annual Estates Budget inc. utilities £10m
Buildings from 599 years to less than 1 year old
Gross area 3.2m sq ft (1.2m sq ft listed)
Lean works!
Internal to the University of St Andrews
The way we work is ...
Library Cataloguing
Biology examination setting process
The Systematic Intervention
A series of interventions
Identified by an central authority
Led by a central team
Lots of control
Clear direction
Limited capacity
Central ownership
The Management Led
Management training
Leading to interventions
Supported by a central team
Broad dissemination
Clear ownership
Lack of direction
Loss of impact
As seen in...
The Organic Growth
Growth follows relationships
Central team leads change
Employee engagement
Wide dissemination
Takes time
Feels out of control
As seen in...
Senior Management championship
Action orientated
skilled people
Critical Success Factors for Lean in Universities
Lean models in UK Universities
Choose a model that suits your University
As seen in...
Universities that leave their 'Lean' teams to do all the improvement work
Chemical Hazard and Risk Management Process
Reviews of administration processes,

School of Languages, Literatures and Cultures, University of Edinburgh
Lean Training Programme
Lean Thinking for Managers
Lean Tools for Managers
Managing Change
Introduction to Project Management
Passport to Environmental Excellence
Lean: The 8 Wastes and How to Reduce Them
Passport to Administrative Excellence
Lean Problem Solving for Administrators
1. Training specifically for project team members
2. Passport to Management Excellence
With Senior Management support, get the right people together in the same room
with the right data, the authority to act, and for the right amount of time
Eliminate barriers
Change the culture in a positive way
Challenge the status quo. Does it really matter?
Question why things are done until the status quo is understood
Supported by Management
Purposefully enjoyable
Builds relationships
Challenges constructively
Safe ... no idea is a bad idea
Involves Students
Key objective:

Reduce time taken to log invoices on finance system

Key outcomes:

1. All invoices logged within 24 hours of receipt rather than batched to meet weekly schedule
2. Dramatic reduction in inquiries from suppliers, Schools and Units about unpaid invoices
3. Happy suppliers, Schools and Units
4. Fewer payment runs (data told us we were running 2.3 per week instead of 1 per month!)
5. Savings of 1 staff member's time as no longer required to sort and batch invoices or answer the same volume of calls or emails (£26,000 per year).
Key objective:

Eliminate backlog of uncatalogued books and DVDs

Key outcomes:

1. Hard copy book cataloguing time reduced from 4 months to 2 days
2. DVD cataloguing time down from 2 years to 2 days
3. Shelves freed for use elsewhere
4. More natural light entering work areas
5. Significant reduction of stress among staff
6. Dramatically increased Teamwork within cataloguing team
7. Happy students
Key objective:

Improve Junior Honours examination setting process

Key outcomes:

1. Exam setting process reduced from 32 to 12 steps
2. Emphasis on getting it right first time, with a significant reduction is checking of question validity, grammar, model answers, etc.
3. Clear instructions provided to all staff
4. University deadlines met
5. Time freed across School for all staff to do other value-adding work
Jobs sourced and closed electronically from next working day
Elimination of paper time sheets from next working day
Process time down from over 4 hours to 21 minutes
Elapsed time reduced from 44 to 14 days (Receipt to closing of job)
From PCs to mobile devices predicted to save further 1.5 FTE (£45,000)
Key objective:

To enable the University to undertake world class teaching and research in a safe environment now and in the future

Key outcomes:

1. Developed a new electronic chemical hazard and risk management process for the Schools of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Psychology
2. A process that would maximise academic and student engagement with the system and hence the overriding legislation
3. A system that:
Both monitors and alerts
Makes responsibilities clear
Is searchable
Is robust
Contains an Archive
Estates can start to move from reactive to proactive maintenance
Key Objectives:

Create efficient School administration processes and free up academic staff time

Processes involved:

Tutorial allocation
Records management
Student handbooks
Coursework submission

Key outcomes:

1. Consistent and efficient processes across all 5 subject areas
2. Documented and readily accessible student handbooks and admin processes
3. Staff relationships and teamwork greatly enhanced
4. No 'single points of failure'
5. Consistent service levels provided to academics
6. Academic staff time released to focus on teaching and research
Key objective:

Reduce time taken to process letters confirming that students are enrolled at the University (required by e.g. banks, local Council)

Key outcomes:

1. Letters produced by 1 staff member within 2 minutes of being requested, rather than being passed through several hands and ready for collection by students in 7 to 10 working days
2. Process time reduced from 31 to 2 minutes
3. Much happier students
4. Saving of 0.5 fte (£13,000 per year)
Library Shelving Process, University of Lincoln
Senior Manager Sponsorship
Line Manager commitment
Head of School role, Glasgow School of Art
Key objective:

Define the role of a Head of School

Key outcomes:

1. Agreed role descriptor that all current Heads are happy with
2. Includes agreement of where a Head should:
Do more
Do less
Transfer (and where)
Internal to the University of St Andrews
External to the University of St Andrews
Established late 2006
Two full-time positions
Exist to help the University
To become the best it can be
Focus its energies on Teaching and Research
Develop a culture of continuous improvement and respect for people
39 five-day rapid improvement events
10 four-day rapid improvement events
19 three-day rapid improvement events
Numerous smaller scale change events
Key objective:

A shelving process where books and DVDS are returned to the right space on the right shelf and in the most efficient and timely manner

Key outcomes:

1. A documented book and DVD shelving process that is:
Responsive to peak return periods
Consistently followed
2. Staff capacity and roles meet shelving demands
3. All books and DVDs placed in the right space on the right shelf as soon as possible
4. Significant reduction on the number of ‘lost’ and ‘missing’ books and DVDs
5. Activity reports on demand
for xxxxxxxxx
Womack and Jones
Brought the Toyota Production System into popular thought
5 principles
Continue to lead Lean Thinking
Academics and Authors
(and Roos)
W. Edwards Deming
October 14, 1900 – December 20, 1993
1950s: Brought Statistical Process Control and Quality Control to Japanese Manufacturing
"In God we trust; all others must bring data"
Business Consultant
Walter A. Shewhart
March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967
Physicist, Engineer, Statistician
"What can statistical practice, and science in general, learn from the experience of industrial quality control?"
Introduced statistical process control
Henry Ford
July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947
Developed mass production of the automobile
"Any customer can have a car painted any colour that he wants so long as it is black"
Adam Smith
June 5, 1723 – July 17, 1790
Cited as the father of modern economics and capitalism
"division of labour"
Philosopher and Academic
To take an example, therefore, from a very trifling manufacture; but one in which the division of labour has been very often taken notice of, the trade of the pin-maker; a workman not educated to this business (which the division of labour has rendered a distinct trade), nor acquainted with the use of the machinery employed in it (to the invention of which the same division of labour has probably given occasion), could scarce, perhaps, with his utmost industry, make one pin in a day, and certainly could not make twenty.

But in the way in which this business is now carried on, not only the whole work is a peculiar trade, but it is divided into a number of branches, of which the greater part are likewise peculiar trades. One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations; to put it on, is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them.

I have seen a small manufactory of this kind where ten men only were employed, and where some of them consequently performed two or three distinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day.

There are in a pound upwards of four thousand pins of a middling size. Those ten persons, therefore, could make among them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day.

But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day; that is, certainly, not the two hundred and fortieth, perhaps not the four thousand eight hundredth part of what they are at present capable of performing, in consequence of a proper division and combination of their different operations.
Sakichi Toyoda
February 14, 1867 – October 30, 1930
Founder of Toyota Industries.
Developed "jidoka", autonomous automation
The 5 whys
Inventor and Industrialist
Eiji Toyoda
September 12, 1913 - Present
Took US automotive mass production methods to Toyota ... with a twist
The Toyota Way, or Toyota Production System
Taiichi Ohno
February 29, 1912 - May 28, 1990
Author of the 'Toyota Production System'
7 wastes, Just in Time, Kaizen, Kanban, Poka-Yoke
But nothing is new...
Service industries
Public Sector
Frank George Woollard
September 22, 1883 - December 22, 1957
"A pioneer in flow production in the British motor industry in the mid-1920s ... comparable to Taiichi Ohno ... architect of Toyota's production system."
Mechanical Engineer
Higher Education
Other Crest
2 Fundamentals
1. Continuous Improvement
2. Respect for People
Continuous Improvement
The internal and external environments are always changing

Standing still means going backwards

Everything can and must get better
Looking at your work process to improve them


Never ending
People are our most powerful asset
Nothing works without people
We can’t do everything ourselves
We do not know everything
Because we’re all different
Process is all about how people behave
• Involve staff at all levels in decision making
• Not just managers
• Frontline staff know what works well and what needs improvement

• Ask for and value the views of others

• Create an environment where values are more than words on a website

• Respect does not necessarily mean agreement or compromise
Respect for People
Toyota’s representation:

"... make every effort to understand each other, take responsibility and do our best to build mutual trust ...

... stimulate personal and professional growth, share the opportunities of development and maximize individual and team performance."
Continuous Improvement
Respect for People
City University London
Glasgow School of Art
University of Edinburgh
University of Essex
University of Lincoln
University of Sheffield
Dundee and Angus College
The British School at Rome
The British Army (51 (Scottish) Brigade)
The Scottish Parliament
Scottish Autism
Universiti Putra Malaysia
External Work
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