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Mary Nguyen

on 5 June 2012

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Transcript of HIV

H I V Human Immunodeficiency Virus About the HIV virus: what is it? Belongs to a subgroup of retroviruses called lentiviruses
HIV is the virus that leads to AIDS About HIV:What does HIV do? Weakens immune system by attacking cells with glycoprotein CD4+ on surface macrophages dendritic cells CD4+ Helper T cells What's a CD4+ Helper T Cell?
mature T cell
identify foreign antigens and directs other cells
has highest level of CD4+ glycoprotein
allow HIV to infect immune system How Is HIV Transmitted? HIV is present in the blood and genital secretions of all persons infected
transmission occurs when such the infected blood/genital secretions come in contact with mucus membranes or areas where there is a break in the skin 3 COMMON WAYS TRANSMISSION OCCURS: 1) s e x u a l transmission 2) exposure to i n f e c t e d blood 3) mother to b a b y transmission Although, not everyone who is exposed to HIV contracts it.

Especially if they're homozygous for the gene CCR5-delta32. Genetics and how it affects HIV. What's CCR5? protein expressed on T cells, macrophages, and immature dendritic cells
works as a co-receptor Where does CCR5 come from? produced because of CCR5 gene
located on the short arm at locus 21 on chromosome 3 How does the CCR5 protein affect HIV? HIV looks for proteins CD4+, CCR5, and CXCR4
HIV must attach to at least 2 of the above molecules. What's CCR5delta-32? mutated protein that isn't on the outside of the cell anymore. Most forms of HIV cannot infect cells if there is no CCR5 on the surface.

homozygous CCR5delta-32 (rr)=partially immune to most forms of HIV

no defect (RR) = 20x more CCR5 expression

heterozygous CCR5delta-32 (Rr) are only weakly protected, and have a slightly slowed disease progression Drugs Combatting HIV Through Genetics medication for treatment of retroviruses which includes HIV
20 approved antiretroviral drugs on the market three to four drugs taken at the same time
used to prevent viral resistance Antiretrovirals Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) The Origin of HIV Where Did HIV Come From? sooty mangabey (SIVsmm- HIV-2) chimpanzee (SIVcpz-HIV-1) How Did We Get SIV? simian immunodeficiency disease

zoonosis of HIV occured when african hunters hunted bushmeat, exposure to infected blood occured during physical contact E V O L U T I O N
of HIV. HIV evolutionary history HIV: The Speedy Evolver Intra-host evolution sloppy replication=many mutations

Reverse transcriptase makes 0.2 errors per genome

HIV produces 10^10 – 10^12 virons each day

HIV responds to selection pressures really fast

Following the principals of natural selection, the strains that are drug resistant evolve The Consequence Of HIV Evolution: If a virus is drug-resistant, the virus will reproduce rapidly

HAART blocks reproduction

With less reproduction, mutations and resistance are less likely to occur.

Recombination allows HIV to accumulate and exchange drug resistant mutations, leading to rapid evolution of drug-resistant mutants

HIV can have resistance to more than one type of drug

some drug resistant mutants show higher infectivity rates, and in some cases higher replication rates.

In the United States, as many as 50 percent of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy are infected with viruses that express resistance to at least one of the available antiretroviral drugs. How HIV Affects Human Evolution: the CCR5delta-32 gene is very rare, and so it will take thousands of years for a substantial number of people to have it

The intensity of selection depends on the incidence of HIV as well as its effect on the health of infected hosts.

Generally, we're not able to directly see changes, because such changes exceed our lifespan HIV in the wild! infects more than 36 non-human primate species in africa
found in cattles and domestic cat
zoonosis- transfer of infectious disease between human and animals SIV commonly found in African primates
similar genome as HIV
typically non-pathogenetic infections
chimps show hiv-like symptoms FIV found in domestic cats and cheetahs
caused by transmitting of blood or saliva between cats or vertical transmission
Three stages upon infection:
1) fever, swollen lymph nodes, and a weakness of skin or intestinal infections

2) no signs of disease

3) the immune system is severely harmed by the disease which makes the cat prone to all kinds of infections

similar to the attacks performed by HIV virus Trim5alpha, the CCR5 in primates? protein
most primates are immune to retroviruses
Darwin-positive selection
targets viruses bearing particular capsid
could treat HIV too BIV commonly found in US and South America
high levels of lymphocytes (white blood cells) in the body
transmitted through bodily fluid and vertically Conclusion serious disease infecting 33.3 million people
fourth leading cause of death globally
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