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Nuremberg Trials

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Thomas Doyle

on 26 April 2010

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Transcript of Nuremberg Trials

Nuremberg Trials Creation Of The Courts Participants Effects Quiz!
1. Who were the four nations that judged the Nuremberg Trials?

2. Why were the courts created?

3. What were tw of the four indictments the Nazi Generals were tried for?

4. Why did Herman Goering commit suicide before if was to be hanged?

5.Under Hans Frank's administration how many jewish people were exploited to slave labor in german occupied poland?

6. What made Baldur von Schirach, the leader of hitler youth, become anti-semitic and how old was if when it happened?

7. Why did critics say the crime was invalid?

8. What was a weakness Jackson pointed out about the trial?

9. Was the idea accepted at first?

10. BONUS: what does Goering's relationship with the american guards and other defendants in jail say about his personality and how could it have been useful during the war?
At the time of Nuremberg Trials there were three superpowers in the world, USA, USSR, and Great Britain. dfdfOf 23 defendants,
12 of the defendants were sentenced to death
3 were sentenced to life imprisonment
4 were given prison sentence ranging from 10 - 20 years
3 were acquitted
Of 23 defendants,
12 of the defendants were sentenced to death
3 were sentenced to life imprisonment
4 were given prison sentence ranging from 10 - 20 years
3 were acquitted
Sentenced To Death Martin Bormann

Hans Frank

Wilhelm Frick

Hermann Göring

Alfred Jodl

Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Wilhelm Keitel

Joachim von Ribbentrop

Alfred Rosenberg

Fritz Sauckel

Arthur Seyss-Inquart

Julius Streicher
Life In Prison
Walther Funk

Rudolf Hess

Erich Raeder

10 - 20 Years In Prison Karl Dönitz 10 yrs

Konstantin von Neurath 15 yrs

Baldur von Schirach 20 yrs

Albert Speer 20 yrs

Innocent Hans Fritzsche

Franz von Papen

Hjalmar Schacht

Hermann Wilhelm Goering:
-sentenced to death by hanging
-committed suicide before hanging, by taking poison in his jail cell because he thought a hanging was “inappropriate of a man of his position”
-Perhaps the second most influential man next to Hitler, in the Nazi organization
-Goering was said to be the most popular prisoner with the American guards. He had drinks, sang songs with them and took interest in there lives. He also had a great deal of influence on other defendants. Prison administrators tried to isolate him as much as possible.
-responsible for eliminating Jews from political life and arranged the takeover of Jewish business and property which was looted of art treasury
-Wanted to “Aryanize” the Germany Economy by setting wide spread anti-Semitic laws
-Reichsmarschall and Luftwaffe (Air Force) Chief; President of Reichstag; Director of "Four Year Plan"
-“I must take 100 percent responsibility. I even overruled objections by the Fuehrer and brought everything to its final development.”
Rudolf Hess:
-Sentenced to life in prison; committed suicide in 1987 at age 93
-Deputy of Fuhrer and Nazi Party Leader
-Hitler’s next in line if Goering should be unavailable for any reason
-Hess was a loyal and ready instrument of power in the Nazi organization
-Signed decrees promoting persecution of Jews
-He was a willing participant of in the aggression against Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Poland
-Tried to end the war on his own terms in 1941 by flying to Britain and staying there until the end of the war.
-Hess Suffered from paranoid delusions, apathy, amnesia, and diagnosed for having a hysterical personality
-He remained at Spandau prison, for many years as its only prisoner, in his own mental fog.
“It is just incomprehensible how those atrocities came about… Every genius has the demon in him. You can’t blame him [Hitler]…its just in him…But at least I have the satisfaction of knowing that I tried to do something to end the war”

Hans Frank:
-sentence death by hanging; was said to be smiling when hung
-President of the Academy of German Law, Governor of general of Nazi occupied Poland
-Also called the “Jew butcher of Cracow”
-Harsh attack of Poland; said Poles were to be treated like a colony and will become the slaves of the Greater German World Empire
-Also initial plans for slave labor and the organization of the first ghettos for German Jewish people
-Under his administration the approximately 2.5 million Jews in the occupied territories of Poland were exploited in slave labor
- In his testimony he denied knowledge of the atrocities. Then it shifted to denial of responsibility and finally to open condemnation of Hitler. Finally to the acceptance of guilt and pleas for mercy.
“A thousand years will pass and the guilt of Germany will not be
“Don’t let anybody tell you that they had no idea. Everybody sensed there was something horribly wrong with the system.”

Quotes from Defendants:

Alfred Jodl - Chief of Operations for the German High Command
"The order to kill the escaped British fliers--there was absolutely no justification for that. From then on, I knew what kind of a man Hitler was."
Said that he couldn’t see how prosecution failed to recognize a soldier’s obligation to obey his orders, because that was the code he’d lived by all his life.

Alfred Rosenberg – Chief Nazi Philosopher and Reich Minister for Eastern Occupied Territories
"I didn't say that the Jews are inferior. I didn't even maintain they are a race. I merely saw that the mixture of different cultures didn't work."
He developed policies of “Germanization” and the exploitation and extermination of opponents of Nazi rule. Rosenberg provided segregation of Jews in ghettos, facilitating their mass killing and set quotas for laborers to be sent to the Reich.

Baldur von Schirach – Hitler Youth Leader
"I had no reason to be anti-Semitic...until someone made me read the American book, The International Jew, at the impressionable age of 17. You have no idea what a great influence this book had on the thinking of German youth...At the age of 18, I met Adolf Hitler. I must admit I was inspired by him...and became one of his staunchest supporters."

Agreements were made to punish those responsible for the Holocaust such as the high-ranking Nazi Officials. There were four indictments in which the Nazi Officials were to be tried for: Participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of a crime against peace, Planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace, War crimes, and Crimes against humanity. Each country, including France, provided a judge and an alternate to represent them for the trials. The Soviet Union had wanted the trials to take place in Berlin, but Nuremberg was chosen as the site for the trials for specific reasons:

It was located in the American sector (at this time, Germany was divided into four sectors),
The Palace of Justice was spacious and largely undamaged, and a large prison was also part of the complex. The impact of the Nuremberg trials was not only debate, but also about political development The idea of the trial was made during the Cold War but was rejected to be made a historic precedent. Critics argued that the trial was invalid in that the crime was defined AFTER it was committed. Some critics were tolerant enough to handle what happened to the Nazis, and admitted that what they had done to follow the law was a fraud. In the letter was stated a weakness that Jackson pointed out to President Truman. He told him that they were doing exactly what they prosecuted Germany for.
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