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The Reformation & Catholic Response
Transcript of The Reformation & Catholic Response
The Protestant Reformation was the European Christian reform movement that began in 1517 when a German monk, Martin Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses.
An indulgence was a guarantee of forgiveness. By paying money to the Church, people thought they could purchase salvation.
The Roman Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation.
As Protestant churches grew all over Europe, the Catholic Church took steps to change itself. This was called the Catholic Reformation or Counter-Reformation.
Who brought on religious reforms?
The Reformation & Catholic Response
Why the Need to "Reform"?
The Protestant Reformation began as an attempt to reform (fix) the Catholic Church, because of perceived false teachings and malpractice that some Christians saw as evidence of the corruption of the Church’s hierarchy, which included the Pope.
Compare these two churches
What were the criticisms against the Catholic Church?
The practice of church officials holding several church offices simultaneously. Clergymen were paid for multiple church offices but did not fulfill their jobs.
When church officeholders ignored their jobs and hired underlings, to do their jobs, who sometimes lacked proper qualifications.
If you didn’t have the money to buy an indulgence, you could purchase salvation through service in the church, i.e. being a monk or serving in the crusades.
The selling and buying of Church offices and roles.
The practice is named after Simon Magus, who is described in the Acts of the Apostles 8:9–24 as having offered two disciples of Jesus, Peter and John, payment in exchange for their empowering him to impart the power of the Holy Spirit to anyone on whom he would place his hands.
John of Leyden
How are the two churches different?
His “95 Theses,” concluded two central beliefs:
- The Bible is the central religious authority (Not the Pope)
- Humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by their deeds (or by purchasing indulgences).
Eventually his words were printed (using the newly developed printing press) and spread throughout Germany. This marked the beginning of the Reformation.
Calvin's religious teachings emphasized the sovereignty of the scriptures "Sola Scriptura" and divine predestination "Sola Gratia"—a doctrine holding that God chooses a select few to enter Heaven, regardless of their good works.
In 1518, Zwingli became the pastor of a church in Zurich where he began to preach ideas on reforming the Catholic Church. In his first public controversy in 1522, he attacked the custom of fasting during Lent. In his publications, he noted corruption in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, promoted clerical marriage, and attacked the use of images in places of worship.
Why did Henry VIII, a devout Catholic, ultimately reject papal authority and start the English Reformation?
John of Leiden (1509-1536) led the Anabaptist attempt to establish by force a "kingdom of God" in Münster, Germany.
Anabaptist. : a radical protestant movement arising in the 16th century and advocating the baptism and church membership of adult believers only, nonresistance, and the separation of church and state.
One Catholic reformer was Ignatius (later St. Ignatius) who founded a new group in the Catholic Church based on deep devotion to Jesus. Members of this group, were called the Jesuits.
The Counter-Reformation Movement
The Jesuits started schools across Europe, sent missionaries to convert people to Catholicism and tried to stop the spread of Protestantism.