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Chapter 4 Experts As Claimsmakers
Transcript of Chapter 4 Experts As Claimsmakers
as Claimsmakers Joel Best. (2013). “Experts as Claimsmakers.” Social Problems, Second Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Pp. 96-126. Expert Claimsmakers in the Social Problems Process Case Study: The Autism Epidemic and Disputes Over Expertise Who are the “Experts”? The Role of Science Medicalization Experts Doctors Medical Psychiatric/Psychological PhD Scientists Scholars Officials Medical Model: a general framework for thinking about medical (and other) matters as diseases that require treatment - What other matters utilize a medical model? Biomedicalization: the process of arguing that biological processes are the root cause of many troubling conditions/social problems Pharmaceuticalization: the process of defining prescription drugs as solutions to troubling conditions/social problems Box 4.1 Medicalizing Opposition by Using the Label "Phobia"
Box 4.2 The Various Meanings of Genetic Informaiton Legitimation and Authority through
-Expertise, Special Knowledge and the use of Evidence
-Debate and Contradictions among scientists and Changing Interpretations over time
How does Science influence the Naming and Framing Social Problems
Box 4.3 The Path toward Scientific Consensus Evidence, Interests, and Advocacy What are some assumptions about the claims of medical and scientific authorities/experts?
What are some of the realities and complexities about these experts positions, claims, and practices?
Box 4.4 Think Tanks and Officials Officials as Expert Claimsmakers Who are included in the category of Officials as Authorities/Experts?
Compare to the assumptions and realities/complexities for these experts to those of medical and scientific authorities
-How are they similar?
-How to they differ?
Box 4.5 Officials, Hedgehogs, and Foxes Experts’ Role in the Social Problems Process (Refer to Figure 4.1, p. 121)
-What is the relationship between Experts and Nonexperts?
-What does the dashed arrow represent, compared to the solid arrows?
Box 4.6 Are Experts Enough? What explains the debate over autism’s causes?
What role does scientific evidence play in claims and counterclaims about autism?
How are physicians’ decisions to diagnose autism shaped by social factors? Reflections on Ch. 4 General reflections