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Year 10: History - Nature of Nazi Germany 1933 - 39
Transcript of Year 10: History - Nature of Nazi Germany 1933 - 39
Economic Revival - based on public spending, rearmament and preparation for war. Volksgemeinschaft Rearmament DAF Master 'Aryan Race'
Polycratic System His 'Vision' Four Year Plan Schacht The SS The Gestapo The police and the courts Concentration Camps Asocial By Charlie Baker - 10DZA was profound due to his extremist nationalism and oratory skills. The masses longed for Germany to be great again, after the humiliation of World War One and the Treaty of Versailles.
Economic revival and propagnada lead to many Germans accepting the dubious methods. • Through a system of terror and ‘perceived’ surveillance, the Nazis made Germany a totalitarian state. They harnessed the energy and collective work of ordinary citizens to serve the state and please the Führer. This was achieve through- Monopoly of Media and Censorship In March 1933 Hitler created the ‘Ministry for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda’ with Goebbels as its head. Goebbels the centralized and controlled the German media enabling him to influence public opinion. Achieving this though; amalgamating all news agencies into the German News Bureau (DNP) and creating a law making all journalist responsible to the state in October 1933. There was strict censorship of media and culture with Gobbles holding daily ‘press conferences’ and the Reich Chamber of Culture registering all cultural material. ‘Think of the press as a great keyboard on which the government can play.’ -Joseph Goebbels Positive • The SS comprised of Hitler’s most loyal supporters used violence and imprisonment in concentration camps to destroy oppositions of Nazism and Hitler. They also carried out the racial policies of the Nazis’s, with the ‘Death’s Head’ responsible for the genocide of the Jews. Members of the SS and the Gestapo Occupy and Search the Berlin Headquarters of the German Communist Party (February 23, 1933) • The Gestapo infamous among the German citizens were the Secret Police of the regime. Under the command of Reinhard Heydrich they possessed sweeping powers and could arrest citizens on suspicion and send them to a concentration camp without trial. Through the ‘climate of fear’
they created a ‘population of informants’, despite the actual Gestapo force being small and not as resourceful as thought. While the German perception was that there was a Gestapo agent ‘on every street corner’ this was far from reality. In Düsseldorf there was only 281 Gestapo responsible for Lower Rhine region of 4 million people with 80% of Gestapo investigations results from tips from ordinary Germans. • The biased court system controlled by Nazi officials, allowed Nazi agents to be ‘above the law’ and opponents of Nazism to not receive a fair trial. • Concentration Camps imprisoned enemies of the state, under appalling condition with scares food and forced labour, they developed more horrific as the regime went on, developing into death camps. The Infamous Gates of the 'Auschwitz Concentration Camp' Through these methods the Nazi’s created a state of terror and totalitarian rule,
were few sought to oppose them. While Hitler was obsessed with an imagery of order, he actually ran his government under a weak polycratic system, delegating tasks to his ministers
[Himmler, Goering, Goebbels, Lay, Speer, Boreman]
– who competed against each other leading to inefficiency. Hitler’s twelve years of rule: was the ‘biggest confusion in sophisticated Government’s history’, as Hitler had little interest in policies only the greater ‘vision’.
This lead to other key Nazi driving policies and acting on 'the will of the Führer'. Negative • Germany was hit hard by the ‘Great Depression’, so people and businesses complied with Nazi ideals, soon Germany went thorugh an amazing Economic Revival which was acheived through - • Hermann Göring lead the Four Year Plan [Commenced October 18, 1936] - The Four Year Plan sought to reduce unemployment with an inflation based solution. The Nazi party increased general production, automobile production, building and architectural projects and undertook huge public works such as the Autobahn. Aim = Autarky [Agricultural and Economic independence] and preparing the German economy for war. • Dr Hjalmar Schact served in the Nazi government as President of the Reichbank and Mister of Economics. He orchestrated the implementation of Germany's reindustrialization and rearmament. He sought to remove unemployment and achieve economic autarky. He was of great value to the Nazi Party effectively managing debt and reparations, organising German finances to fund work creation. Hitler told Schalt ‘to get on with the job anyway he liked’ and thus ‘armaments were paid for by a series of sophisticated loans which mortgaged Germany’s future’ Source 43 reflects how the Four Year Plan affected Germany, showing the relationship between goverment expenditure and unemployment
• ‘Aufrüstung’ became an economic priority and a key objective of the Four Year Plan, although it violated the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Conscription was reintroduced in 1935 with the need for weapons, equipment and uniforms creating jobs in coal mines, steel and textile mills. The Luftwaffe [German Air force] created jobs for engineering and designers. Rearmament reduced unemployed and increased demand. The German 'Luftwaffe', or airforce, was formed in May of 1935 • On May 2th 1933 the Nazi’s abolished Trade Unions, uniting all workers together in the ‘General Labour Front’ (DAF). Workers were compensated by schemes such as ‘Strength Yhrough Joy’, ‘Volkswagen Beetle’ and ‘Beauty of Labour’. However the DAF kept strict control of workers restricting them from striking and keeping wages were comparatively low. Army ‘had such an increased budget in the first year of rearmament they couldn’t’ spend it all’ Through these schemes the government brought economic recovery as well as nation pride boosting Hitler’s popularity. Aiding Germany's economic revival was propaganda which promoted people to work and praised industrial workers and farmers
Hitler's vision = ‘Master Aryan Race’ and no place for ‘inferiors’ who divided and weakened Germany.
His Nazi variety of fascism praised biological racism and anti-Semitism.
The key focus was on 'Volksgemeinschaft', the ‘National Community’ and giving Germany 'Lebensraum' ‘Living Space’ the motivation for the expansion of Germany. He envisioned Germany to be great, a world power and an empire, like the British Empire he adrimed. propaganda including the Nuremberg rallies created a sense of power and unity in Germany. Events of this nature included the 1936 Berlin Olympics which showcased German superiority and public holidays which increased nationalism. Hitler in a motorcade parade  1934 Nuremberg Rally propaganda influenced the German population’s opinions of opponents of the regime. Through DNB control of print media, the volksempfanger ‘the people’s radio’, public loudspeakers, posters, book, text books and comics everyone heard Nazi messages. These mediums were a mixture of blatant propaganda and indirect propaganda and entertainment.
One particular example of this is the German film industry which conveyed themes of Aryan superiority, Anti-Semitism and militarism with famous film makers including Leni Rienfaht masters at glorifying the regime through the medium of film. Poster for the 1934 Film 'Triumph of Will' directed by Leni Rienfenstahl, one of the greatest documentaries propaganda of all time. 1936 Nazi propaganda poster, promoting the use of the Volksempfänger. ‘Through clever and constant application of propaganda, people can be made to see paradise as hell, and also the other way round, to consider the most wretched sort of life as paradise.’ – Adolf Hitler ‘Never seen a statesmen as popular as Hitler’ The Nazi Regime was undermined by - Volksgemeinschaft or the ‘National Community’ was a term used by the Nazi’s to unify Germany. The Nazi 'Volksgemeinschaft' was based on racial unification with the Aryans living harmoniously unified by ‘blood and soil’. To have a success Volksgemeinschaft the Nazis believed in racial purity. According to Hitler Aryans were superior because of their intelligence and capacity to work for their country.
Ideal Germans were ‘socially useful’ and contributed to the Volksgemeinschaft. Anyone who didn’t contribute was a ‘burden on the community’ and an ‘expense’. • Hitler controled the youth of Germany through Nazi education. Through studies in history, race and ideology German youth were imprinted with Nazi beliefs. The Nazis also set up organisation for the youth of Germany such as ‘Hitler Youth’ or ‘League of German Maiden’.
• Male youth's were made to be physically fit and have militaristic values and skills, while female youth's studied domestic science and looked at the importance of motherhood.
• The German youth’s first loyalty was to Hitler not their family with most participating in youth movement as all other alternatives were disbanded or illegal.
• Some alternate such as the ‘Swing’ movement and the ‘Edelweiss Pirates’ sought to counter Nazi ideals and resented Nazi control of people's lives however they were dealt with and were only on a small scale. A 'Hitler's Youth' Rally which took boys from 10 to 18 years old ‘The Jews are aliens in German. In 1933 there were 66,060,000 inhabitants of the German Reich of whom 199,863 were Jews. What is the percentage of aliens in Germany? – A question from a Nazi maths textbook, 1933. • Nazi Germany was a male dominated society. Hitler reinstated the traditional gender roles with the German woman; the wife and mother. With women promoted not to work because of job shortages.
• Because of the falling birth-rate, Hitler offered incentives for married woman to have lots of children. These incentives were strongly supported with propaganda celebrating motherhood.
• The Nazis set up groups including; German Maidens League and the Nazi Women Bureau which housed these ideals . This separation between genders received mixed results. The cover of a Nazi publication on race, 'Neues Volk' New People which portrays motherhood postively with this image of an "Aryan" mother and child. Germany, April 1936. Hitler belief in the superiority of the Aryan races led to any other group being undesirables.
These groups included -
taught Germans to despise and resent Jews, blaming them for the problems of Germany. In the early years of Nazi rule there was boycotts of Jewish shops and they were banned from the army. However the first instance of horrific treatment of Jews was in September 1935 with the introduction of the Nuremberg Laws which banned Jews from marrying Aryan Germans and revoked their rights as citizens.
On 9-10th November, Kristallnact a series of racially motivated attacks against Jews occurred in Germany and marking the progression from racial policy to genocide and the ‘Final Solution’. The damaged caused by looting to a Jewish owned store on ‘The Night of Broken Glass’ were;
approximately 400 synagogues and 7500 shops were destroyed, 91 Jews were killed and 30,000 were sent to concentration camps. Disabled Non Aryans [Gypsies] Asocial people were anyone who didn’t not fit with the Volksgemeinschaft and included beggars, alcoholics, prostitutes, homosexual and delinquents. They were a threat to Nazi life. From 1933 onwards many asocial’s were compulsory sterilised and by 1936 many were send to concentration camps. The gypsies who were non-Aryan, homeless and unemployed went against all Nazi ideals. They were racially classified and prevented from mixing with Aryan Germans. In 1935 marred between Gypsies and German was banned and in 1938 a Decree for the ‘Struggle against the Gypsy Plague’ was issued forcing the racial separation of Gypsies. • In Nazi Germany disabled people were seen as an ‘expense’ and the Nazis secretly began an euthanasia program. This program evolved from ‘special treatment’ on a case by case basis, snowballing from an idea to reality due to the weak polycratic system. The ‘Law of Prevention of Progeny with Heredity Diseases’ was passed in 1933 resulting in the serialized of those physically or mentally disabled. The view of some key Nazis was ‘Why should we spend money on a hopelessly ill person when we could spend it on a poor person’. Conclusion Overview: Hitler speaking in a public assembly  about Germanys need for 'Lebensraum'. This demonstrates his extraordinary oratory skills which encapsulated audiences.
Nazi Germany from 1933-1939 was a complex socitety with many factors contributing to the overall nature of the country.
1. The Economic Revival of Germany was the key factor; reducing unemployment and rearming Germany thus boosting Hitler’s popularity.
2. Propaganda was immense in Nazi Germany and influenced all facets of its nature, leading to people accepting the Nazi’s extremist ideals. It supported; Volksgemeinschaft, the Nazis treatment of Jews and undesirables, the Fuhrer and this cult of personality as well as economic revival.
3. The public opinion of the Führer and his cult of personality was strong with revived nationalism and implementation of Hitler’s vision.
The flag of the DAF German spectators salute Adolf Hitler during the 1936 Berlin Olympics. Germany, August 1936. A Propagands showing the "pure Aryan" family on the cover of the 1938 calendar published by Neues Volk, the magazine of the Nazi Party's Race Political Office. Schacht and Hitler together at a 1938 Nazi Public Event 4. Hitler’s vision was of 'Volksgemeinschaft'; woman in traditional gender role and the youth taught Nazi ideals.
5. Volksgemeinschaft and ‘Master Aryan Race’ created prejudice and then violence towards Jews and other undesirables as they were ‘inferior’ and weakened Germany.
6. Undermining the Nazi Regime and it’s extremist politics was a system of terror and surveillance which ensured the Nazis were unopposed out of fear.
Overall the nature of Germany in 1933-39 was a complex one with the chaotic polycratic government housing extremist ideals.
In the end the nature of Nazi Germany was artificial; the political anarchy could only be masked by order for so long with Hitler’s over ambition and reckless military leadership resulting in the loss of World War Two.
The German military could not maintain a war on two fronts with the key strategic errors in Dunkirk, the Battle of Brittan and the Invasion of the Soviet Union saw the end of the Nazi’s.
Also Nazi ideals lead to weakness within the German war economy, with the Nazi having to decide between waging ‘total war’ or maintaining their ideology, the propaganda and system of terror could not mask reality forever and the German people felt social hardships and loss.
Hitler’s Popularity Anti-Semitism The factors at the heart of the regime