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Colonialism in Africa

Few European countries had ventured into the interior of Africa before the 19th century. But the lure of Africa's resources changed that during the late 19th century and early 20th centuries.

Rose Trevino

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of Colonialism in Africa

Colonialism in Africa
Africa Before the Scramble
Africa 1898
Italy-striped pink
Spain-striped organge
Independent Ethipia-brown
Despite their interest in Africa's resourses
including slaves and gold, European countries
restricted themselves to coastal forts. Europeans were aware of North Africa's Muslim country, but were unaware of Africa's interior kingdoms such as the Ashanti, Masai, Zulu, etc.
King Leopold of Belgium
paves the way for European
Partitioning Africa
late 19th, early 20th centuries
King Leopold exploits Congo
British occupy Egypt
British and French compete for control
of the Niger River
German Leader Otto von Bismarck calls to convene the Berlin conference of 1884
Berlin Conference of 1884

In 1884, fourteen European nations met in Berlin, Germany to make decisions about dividing Africa.
And guess who was not invited to the meeting?
The African people. There was no political leaders, no delegates, nor any ambassadors from Africa at the Berlin Conference. It was not even considered.

Conference Agreement
1. Any European country could claim land in Africa by telling the other countries and showing they could control the area.
2. Could and did set boundaries without regard to ethnic or linguistic groups.
Ethiopia remained independent.
It successfully defended its borders
against Italian invasion in1896.
Colonial Objectives:
acquiring power
strategic advantage
exploiting resources
settling territories
converting Africans to Christianity
European factories needed
resources to supply Industrial
Revolution (*primary*)
British and Portuguese
Represented colonial policy to "civilize"
military and economic
Method of Colonial Control
Direct rule
Indirect rule
French,Portuguese and Belgium
British Spanish
Effects of Colonialism
European Perspective:
military and economic advantages
minerals and natural resources
that fed Industrial revolution
cheap labor
trade relations with Africa
African Perspective
Improved infrastructure
market economy introduced
French citizenship for some
defend against colonial powers

*European settlers appropriated good lands
*forced into hard labor
*not prepared to lead themselves after independence
*ethnic rivalries increased.
European Colonialism
What impact did it have on Africa's economic and political development?

Liberia remained free
Partition of Africa
West: Rich Trading Empires
Ghana, Mali, Songhai thrived
because of their location on
trade routes. Gold and salt
were main products that
were traded.
Consisted of many stateless
Bantu migrations:
Bantu migrations produced a great
diversity of cultures as groups migrated
south and
helped to link the continent.
Migrations were caused by land
shortages. Today about120 million
Africans speak one of the Bantu Languages.

of the Congo
Resources such as rubber, plam oil,
ivory, and other resources led to
exploitation of the Congo.
East Africa: Contentiental Crossroads
Cradle of Humanity-Olduvai Gorge
Location to Red Sea and the Indian Ocean
made it an important trade center.
The Aksum trade with people from Egypt
and the Roman Empire.
Olduvai Gorge
North Africa: Cultural Hearth
Egypt-Nile River made the
existence of this great civilization
possible. Most of the people are
Arabs and Islam is the dominant
cultural and religious factor
95 % of Egyptians depend
on the Nile.

1. What type of political boundaries existed before the Berlin Conference? Describe Africa before the "Scramble".
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