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Energy, Enzymes, Metabolism (Cell Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis)

Overview of ATP (energy) production in cells. Includes description of ATP, explanations of endergonic and exergonic reactions, and an overview of how enzymes function. Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis are also covered.
by

tdelia_biology @irsc

on 28 February 2013

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Transcript of Energy, Enzymes, Metabolism (Cell Respiration, Fermentation and Photosynthesis)

C C C C C C Glycolysis Pyruvate
Oxidation Cell Respiration
Glucose broken down all the way to CO2
Electron carriers produced
ATP produced (energy from glucose converted to energy of ATP) Pyruvate = 3 C Pyruvate = 3 C Energy Investment (2 ATPs required) 2 ATP Energy Harvesting
4 ATPs Produced 4 ATP Pyruvate
Oxidation OIL = Oxidation is Loss
RIG = Reduction is Gain Substrate Level Phosphorylation 2 NADH 2 NADH Glucose = 6 Carbons "Glyco" and "Lysis" = breaking down of Glucose
Occurs with or without Oxygen
Occurs in the cytoplasm C C C C C C 2 CO2 Acetyl-CoA C C +CoA C C +CoA Acetyl-CoA Krebs Cycle Krebs Cycle 4 CO2 6 NADH + 2 FADH2 2 ATP Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis NADH NAD+ e- e- e- e- e- e- e- O2 H2O FADH2 FAD H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ ADP + P ATP Glycolysis:
Start with 6 Carbon Glucose
End with:
2, 3 Carbon Pyruvates
2 Net ATPs
2 NADH (will go to the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Pyruvate Oxidation:
Start with 2 Pyruvates (3 carbons each)
End with:
2 Acteyl+CoA (2 carbons each)
Produced 2 CO2 (each pyruvate looses 1 C atom)
Pyruvate is oxidized = looses electrons, Where do those electrons go? -> 2 NADH created that carry e- to ETC Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP
Synthase Krebs Cycle:
Remainder of Carbon from original Glucose is converted to CO2 (exhaled)
Many electron carriers produced (NADH, FADH2 -> go to ETC
A little bit of ATP produced Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis
Start with electron carriers from previous steps (NADH, FADH2)
They "drop off" the electrons
H+ ions are pumped across membrane, create gradient
H+ then flow back in through ATP synthase and create ATP (oxidative phosphorylation) Occurs in Cytoplasm Occurs in Mitochondria Energy Production and Metabolism Free Energy Free Energy G: Energy of Products - Energy of Reactants Glucose has high free energy CO2 has lower free energy Exergonic
This change (high to low) gives a negative delta G
The energy released by breaking down glucose is used to make ATP directly, or captured by electron carriers and used to make ATP in ETC
Catabolic: breaking bonds Energy Released Glucose has high free energy CO2 has lower free energy Energy Required to take CO2 and make Sugars Endergonic
This change (low to high) gives a positive delta G
Energy is required
Anabolic Therefore...breaking down glucose gives overall negative delta G, energy is released that is transformed into the energy stored in ATP When Cells "Make" Energy, They Make ATP Triphosphate:
The phosphates are all negatively charged
"Like" charges want to repel each other
The 3 phosphates, when bound together, act like a loaded spring, or charged battery Energy is created in the mitochondria as ATP so that it can travel to other locations in the cell to be used Watch Video Watch Video Only Occurs if Oxygen Present

Oxygen is the last electron acceptor in ETC

If no oxygen is present, then there is fermentation No oxygen, so no electron transport Watch Video The Role of Enzymes in Metabolism Enzymes
Biocatalysts: Speed up a chemical reaction without being used in the process
Are made from proteins (some are RNA)
Work by lowering the activation energy!
Steps in metabolic pathways (like glycolysis, Krebs cycle, etc) are carried out by enzymes, and are regulated Polysaccharide
(Starch) Monosaccharide Blue Line
A polysaccharide can be broken down to monosaccharide by boiling in water with an acid
Boiling provides the large amount of energy to help break the bonds
This is not realistic inside our bodies! Red Line
Enzymes lower the activation energy and allow polysaccharide to be broken down in our bodies without boiling! Enzyme Regulation
Irreversible
Reversible: Competitive, noncompetitive and allosteric Irreversible Reversible Competitive
Inhibitor Competes for active site Noncompetitive
Inhibitor binds location other than active site
Enzyme shape changes, no longer active Allosteric
Activator or inhibitor binds and enzyme changes shapes to be locked in to the "on" or "off" positions Watch Video C C C C C C CO2 x 6 = one CO2 for each C in the Glucose Energy stored in Glucose Bonds is converted to energy in ATP Cell Respiration
Glucose broken down all the way to CO2
Electron carriers produced
ATP produced (energy from glucose converted to energy of ATP) NADH and FADH2
Electron Carriers Photosynthesis
CO2 used to create sugars
Electron carriers required
ATP required C C C C C C ATP NADPH + Oxygen Water Glucose + Oxygen + Water Sunlight Water Metabolism, Enzymes and Energy:
Cell Respiration
Electron Transport
Fermentation Photosynthesis:
Light Reactions
Light Independent Reactions Breaking Down Sugar
Vs
Making Sugar Light Dependent Reactions Photons from sunlight are absorbed by pigments (chlorophyll) in photosystems
Electrons flow through ETC = Makes ATP
NADP+ Reductase produces NADPH
Electrons added back to system from water (water is oxidized to oxygen gas) Light Independent Reactions 1) CO2 fixation Rubisco combines CO2 with RuBP to make 3PG
Called carbon dioxide fixation Three Main Steps 2) Sugar Production 3PG converted into G3P
Requires 12 ATP and 12 NADPH from Light Dependent Reactions!
G3P will be used to make sugar 3) Regeneration of RuBP Additional ATP are required to allow the cycle to start over
It takes 18 ATP to go through one cycle...
It requires a lot of energy to make sugars from CO2 Watch Video Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Electron carriers drop off electrons
Protons (H+) are pumped across inner mitochondrial membrane Electrons end up at oxygen
Oxygen accepts electrons (is reduced) to water Protons (H+) accumulate
Flow back into mitochondrial matrix through ATP Synthase
Creates lots of ATP! NADH "drops" electrons off at pyruvate instead of the ETC, since no oxygen present NAD+ Regenerated
Goes back to Glycolysis to get more electrons @tdelia_biology http://www.youtube.com/user/tdeliabiology Online: http://tomdelia.weebly.com/ Active Site Permanently Blocked Start with Enzyme and Substrate End with a New Product and Enzyme is unchanged (can be re-used) C C C C C C CO2 x 6 = one CO2 for each C in the Glucose Energy stored in Glucose Bonds is converted to energy in ATP NADH and FADH2
Electron Carriers + Oxygen Water Glucose CO2 x 6
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