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Phylogeny Tree

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Anna McGuire

on 4 February 2015

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Transcript of Phylogeny Tree

Phylogenetic Tree of Life
Porifera
multicellular ingestive-heterotrophic organisms without cell walls
no true tissues or organs

a collection of interacting cells
, only slightly more integrated than a colonial protozoan
can reaggregate from separated cells
Reproduce asexually by budding
Reproduce sexually by ingesting sperm from another sponge and transporting it to the egg. (Hermaphroditic)
Cnidaria
Radially symmetrical
Diploblastic
bag-like with a gastrovascular cavity, enclosed by a wall of three layers: epidermis, mesoglea, gastrodermis
has single opening into the gastrovascular cavity, serving both as a mouth and an anus
tentacles around the cavity opening to capture prey;
nematocytes
Class Scyphozoa
Class Anthozoa
Class Hydrozoa
Polyp Stage dominant
Medusa Stage dominant
Have only the polyp adult stage and a planula larval stage.
Have the gastrovascular cavity divided up into sections
Include corals & sea anemones
Include jellyfish
No true muscles
Simple nervous system-
Nerve-net
Include Hydras
extracellular digestion
1. Sessile polyp stage
2. Medusa stage
3. Medusae undergo meiosis and produce gametes
4. Syngamy
5. Zygote develops into a planula larva
6. Larva settles and develops into a new polyp


1. Medusa
2. Gametes into water
3. Zygote
4. Planula larva
5. Polyp
6. Buds off medusae
Platyhelminthes
Triploblastic
Bilateral Symmetry
HAS muscles and more complex nervous system
Acoelomate
organ level of organization
Similar to Cnidaria in having a gastrovascular cavity with only 1 opening
Rotifera
free living, mainly freshwater where they are common in the plankton. Sometimes found in soils or associated with mosses.
Parthenogenetic
- females produce diploid eggs that hatch into females.
- At other times females lay haploid eggs that become males - if fertilized by male sperm, become females
Mollusca
Coelomates
(small one around the heart)
Protosomes
Body is not segmented
Trochophore larvae (also veliger larva)
Class Bivalvia
Class Polyplacophora
Class Gastropoda
Class Cephalopoda
have a muscular "
foot
"
ventral nerve cords and blood vessels
Mantle is a fold of tissue over the visceral mass that secretes a shell,
Include clams, mussels, oysters, & scallops
No head;
two shells, hinged to each other
Filter-feed by circulating water currents
Include chitons
have a series of 8 plates on the back
marine, cling to rocks
Includes snails, slugs, nudibranchs, & limpets
A single, twisted shell (missing in some)
Eyes on tip of tentacles on head
Radula is a hard mouthpart used to scrape off food particles
Most are marine, but there are many freshwater and terrestrial species
have
radula
- toungue-like structure in the mouth (*except Bivalvia)
Includes squids, octopus, and nautilus
Closed circulatory system
; other molluscs have an open one (hearts at the base of each gill to increase speed of blood circulation)
Large eyes with good vision
Squids/Cuttlefish
Propel themselves and guide
direction by squirting jets of
water from a siphon.
Octopus
Most intelligent invertebrate;
well-developed brain.
Nautilus
Only modern cephalopod
with an external shell
have ink sacs used for defense
Bryozoa

Coelomate
Sessile
colonies arise from
asexual budding
made of microscopical zooids
Annelida
Class Polychaeta
Class Clitellata
Includes earthworms & leeches
Includes bristle worms (clam worms, lug worms)
Coelomates
(
*
except leeches) have 4 bundles of chitinous spines, called chaetae (setae), around each metamere
Class Turbellaria (planaria)
Class Trematoda (parasitic)
Class Cestoda
Includes Flatworms
free-living -- inhabit streams, lakes, & moist forest litter
Lack fluid cavity between gut and body wall
Includes Flukes (Blood and Liver)
Blood Fluke life stages
Adults lay eggs in
human
veins
-->
enter intestine/bladder by ruptured vessels
-->
hatch into larvae in water
-->
penetrate
snails
& change larva type
-->
asexually reproduce same kind
-->
these produce 3rd kind of larva which leave snail
-->
swim to
human
and enters through skin

Liver Fluke life stages
Adults live in
human
bile duct and lays eggs
-->
exits intestines/bladder
-->

*repeat blood flukes snail stages*

-->
swims to
fish
and burrows into muscle
-->
changes into 4th larva that forms cycts
--> humans
eat poorly cooked fish
-->
cycts erupt and 5th larva travels to bile duct
Includes tapeworms (beef)
attaches to host with
scolex
have
proglottids
that are mainly filled with reproductive organs (Immature, Mature, Gravid)
Food absorbed directly through skin.
No digestive tract
.
Beef Tapeworm life cycle
Adult lives in
human
intestine --> gravid proglottids with eggs exit in feces eggs eaten by
cattle
eggs hatch into larva
--> burrows through intestine --> gets into blood stream that carries them to muscles
--> larvae encyst in muscle --> rare beef eaten by
humans
most are
segmented
-use their coelom for locomotion
DO NOT shed their cuticle to grow
- can regenerate segments if lost
have muscular projections called
parapods
to increase their ability to burrow, crawl, or even swim.( Also where gills are)
have a
clitellum
that is used for reproductive activity
Nematoda
Includes round worms, hook worms, heart worms
Hermaphroditic
Tardigrada
also known as "water bears"
Have muscular pharynx and crossbow-like mouth parts.
Can go into deep dormancy, called
anhydrobiosis
, in which they lose their body water, shrivel up, and cease metabolizing. In this state they can withstand almost anything and still be viable after more than a hundred years.
Arthropoda
Amoeboid sperm
Ecdysozoans (shed their skin to grow)
Are dioecious (separate sexes)
Locomotion by longitudinal muscles only. Muscles branch to nerves (rather than the reverse).
No circulatory system and no respiratory system
Coelomates
Segmented
Exoskeleton
Jointed appendages
Molt
chitinous
cuticle
Class Arachnida
Includes spiders (
Aranea
), ticks(
Acari
), daddy-longlegs (
Opiliones
) & scorpions(
Scorpionida
)
All have
8 legs
External digestion
venom is injected by the
chelicerae
Subphylum Crustacea
Includes lobsters, crayfish, crabs, krill, fish lice, barnacles, daphnia, etc.
2-pronged antennae (biramous)
Open circulatory system
Maintain balance with receptors called
statocysts
primarily freshwater or soil-dwelling
have lost their planktonic larval stage
Nauplius larvae
Class Insecta
Includes butterflies, dragonflies, beetles, etc.
Single stalked antennae (
uniramous
)
Feeding
1. Crawls on top of food.
2. Pharynx: with mouth at tip.
3. Intestine: branched throughout body.
4. Feces: exits through mouth.
Locomotion: glides along mucus path via cilia. Also can use muscles.
earthworms have a segmented coelom, leeches do not (filled with spongy tissue
earthworms have small spikes that give the worm traction called
setae
Pseudocoelomates
Dioecious!
Females are bigger than males
Have either complete or incomplete metamorphoses
Hemocoel
Respiration by trachea
Excretion via
Malpighian tubules
Complete
- go through a pupa stage to change their larval form completely to the adults' (butterflies, bees, ants)

Incomplete
- lack a pupa stage and larva look similar to the adult form (nymphs); grow by molting (grasshoppers, roaches)
Protostomes
have
elaborate head appendages
Oligochaeta
Hirudinea
Pseudocoelomate
Have
stylets
that pierce surfaces
use
stylets
to pierce the cell wall of mosses
have a protruding pharynx for feeding
hermaphroditic, reproduce sexually
has a complete digestive tract (mouth to anus)
Corona: crown of cilia used for swimming & feeding
Mastax
: functions as jaws & teeth
"Ectoprocta"
lophophore
found in either tropical or polar waters
Zooid
(looks like its penis...)
trochophore larva
- Coelom reduced, largely replaced by
hemocoel
Tagmosis
: fusion of segments with serial homology
- serves as a hydrostatic skeleton
Protostomes
Ecdysozoans
Nervous system with 2 principal ganglia and segmental ganglia along a ventral nerve chord
Hemocoel
Lobopods
copulatory spicules
(rather than a penis)
Compound eyes with individual
ommatidia
Have a "
beak
"
<-- Internal shells -->
Mandibulata
Subphylum Chelicerata
(plus horseshoe crabs)
use "
book lungs
" for respiration
External fertilization
or by budding off segments
- but cannot self-fertilize

Some can detect water depths distinguishing light wavelengths (color)
mouth
anus
freshwater use
statoblasts
to survive winter

Echinodermata
Includes starfish, brittlestars, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea lilies, and feather stars
Deuterostomes
Locomotion by
tube feet
Larvae are bilateral, but adults are radially symmetrical
Chordata
Notochord
Dorsal tubular nerve chord
Pharyngeal slits and bars
Post-anal tail
Subphylum Cephalochordata
Subphylum Vertebrata (Craniata)
Includes Tunicates/Sea Squirts
Have
all of the chordate characteristics
, even into adulthood.
Also shares a characteristic with the vertebrates:
Segmented muscles
Includes Lancelets
Includes fish, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, etc
Subphylum Urochrodata
Larvae are free-swimming, and contain all chordate characteristics
Adults become sessile.
Looses notochord
.
Nerve tube degenerates
to a ganglion.
Class Asteroidea
Class Ophiuroidea
Class Echinoidea
Class Holothuroidea
Includes sea stars
-Have a
madreporite
, which brings water into the water vascular system
-can regenerate body from a single arm
-everts their stomach to digest prey
Include brittle/serpent stars & basket stars
-don't have suction cups on their tube feet
- move by snaking their arms ahead
-have a blind gut
Includes sea urchins and sand dollars
-have NO ARMS
-
Aristotle's lantern
- jaw/muscle system consisting of 5 teeth
-graze on seaweeds or scrape algae and sessile animals from rocks or pilings
-covered in spines that assist in locomotion
Include sea cucumbers
-have 5 rows of tube feet
-branching tentacles around the mouth
-has soft skin
-shoot their gonads out at predators to trap them in the sticky slime
-gonads, digestive enzymes, and ampullae are in each of the arms
3 body segments & 6 legs
Class Crinoidea
includes sea lilies and feather stars
- sea lilies
are
sessile
-
feather stars
have a ring of
cirri
that hold it in place while it feeds
Are sessile suspension feeders:
cilia along oral surfaces transfer particles to central mouth
<-- POKEMON SEA LILIES!!!
Crinozoa
Eleutherozoa
Stelleroidea
?
Hemichordata
(Acorn Worms)
Deuterostomes
Coelomates
Chordates??
Tornaria larvae - similar to echinoderm bipinnaria larvae
- lack a notochord
Ventral heart
Myomeres
Cranium
: Bone or cartilage plates protect the brain
Notochord extends just to base of head
Bony or cartilaginous endoskeleton
All craniates are vertebrates except hagfish
FISHES
Class Myxini
Includes Hagfishes
“Invertebrate craniates”
Cartilaginous notochord
Pharyngeal slits

internal
, water exits by
atriopores
No scales, jaws or appendages
Scavengers and carnivores
Two-chambered heart
Class Cephalaspidomorphi
Includes Lampreys
“degenerate vertebrates" – lost vertebrae
no jaws, bones, or scales
Mouth modified for
parasitic
life: sucking
External gill openings
begins life as a filter-feeder
Class Chondrichthyes
Includes sharks & rays
Cartilaginous endoskeleton
Placoid scales - teeth
are outward scales
Heterocercal tail
2 pairs of lateral, pectoral, & pelvic fins
Pharyngeal slits open to outside
NO swim bladder
- uses oil in liver to float
Digestive system w/
spiral valve
Oviparous, Ovoviviparous, or Viviparous
Class Actinopterygii
Includes ray-finned fishes
Long fin bones fan out in a ray
Elaborate control of fins
Have a
swim bladder
Bony
operculum
over gill slits
Homocercal tail
Lateral line
- sensory organ that detects water changes
Ganoid, cycloid, or ctenoid scales
Class Actinista
"living fossils"
Fleshy fins have precursors to tetrapod limb bones
May be closest ancestor to tetrapods
Includes lobe-finned fish, coelacanth
Order Caudata
Includes salamanders & newts
Class Amphibia
Order Anura
Ectothermic
Well- developed appendages
Lung & Cutaneous respiration
3-chambered heart
Includes Frogs & Toads
Tail lost in adult stages
Hind legs developed for jumping
External fertilization -
amplexus
Anamniotic Eggs (jelly-covered)
Can be Poisonous
Tail in all life stages
Non-scaly skin
Legs are on sides instead of underneath the body
Order Gymnophiona
Includes caecilians
Legless
Internal fertilization
Have
small scales
(rings)
Class Diapsid
Diapsid Skull
Amniotic egg
(shelled)
Epidermal Scales
More efficient lungs
Limbs positioned beneath body for better walking
Internal Fertilization
No larval stages
Order Chelonia
Includes Turtles
Derived
Anapsid skull
Have a "beak" instead of teeth
Have a
shell
made of their epidermal scales
Order Squamata
Includes snakes and lizards
Use special heat or scent sensors (pit organs/forked tongues) to detect prey
Can be venomous
Shed skin to grow
Carnivorous
Order Crocodilia
Includes crocodiles & alligators
4-chambered heart
have a
hard palate
separating oral and nasal passageways
Do not shed skin to grow
Socketed teeth
Maternal care for young
Order Aves
Includes BIRDS!
Forelimbs modified as wings
feathers & beaks
most can fly
Unidirection lung + air sacs
Toe-lock system
light "pneumatized" bone
Class Mammalia
Includes cats, dogs, rodents, horses, dolphins, bats, lions, tigers, and bears OH MY! (etc, etc.) And humans.
Synapsid skulls
Hair and glands( sweat/mammary)
Heterodont
tooth pattern
Diaphragm & epiglottis
Complete hard & soft palates
Large brains (most of the time)
Order Monotremata
Includes platypus & echidnas
Egg-laying
No nipples
; secrete milk onto hairs
Order Marsupialia
Includes opossum, kangaroos, koala
Young crawl to mother's
pouch
to finish developing and
attach to nipple
Placental Orders
Includes Rodentia, Carnivora, Primates, etc
Placenta
- permits prolonged internal development
(aka Sponges)
graze on algae
nudibranch
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