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Evolution Concept Map

UNIT THREE
by

Jasdeep Aujla

on 28 May 2013

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Transcript of Evolution Concept Map

EVOLUTION Is Change in Genes The processes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest forms to the diversity today by changes throughput an entire population of species Leads To Through Mechanisms Macro-EVOLUTION Micro-EVOLUTION Leads To Is Change Within Species Happens Over A Short Time (Years) Happens Over A Long Time
(Centuries, Millennium) Includes Large Scale
Changes Leads to Formation of new Speciation Which is a Group of Individuals That interbreed in Nature To produce Viable and fertile offspring Where Original Species Are
Reproductively Isolated Through Through Pre-Zygotic
Mechanisms Post Zygotic
Mechanisms Mating and Fertilizing Prevents Species From Ecological Isolation
(Different Environments) Temporal Isolation
(Different Reproductive Cycles) Behavioral Isolation
(Different Mating Signals) Mechanical Isolation
(Sex organs do not fit together) Gametic Isolation
(Gametes fail to be recognized by each other) Prevents Maturation and Reproduction and members of 2 populations cannot Interbreed or produce fertile offspring Through Of the Off Spring Can Be Allopatric Sympatric Geographic Isolation There Is Can Be There Is Significant mutation
In same area Zygotic Morality
(Fertilized Zygote dies) Hybrid Inviability
(Short Life span) Hybrid Infertility
(Infertile Offspring) Through Natural Selection Slow and Random Is Supported Through Formation of new species is called Confused With Type of Changes Evidence Theorists Developmental Evolutionary Can Be Can Be Includes Physical Changes Over A Lifetime For Example Growth /Aging Leads To Body Size + Proportions To Support Stability and Mobility Behavioral Learning Process Non-Inheritable Which Is A And is Inheritable Traits Different of species population is where Because of Random Mutations Which Can Be Harmful Neutral Favourable Low Frequency
(Low # Has It) And Has High Population Fossil Record Cladistics Is a method of Determining
Evolutionary
Relationships Through Presence/Absence Of Derived (New) Traits Phylogeny Family Tree
(Cladogram) Also called Which is represented through a Out Group
(Ancestor) Time Passes Newer Traits are Evolved
Most to Least According to Chart Synapomorphy
(Derived Trait Shared by 2+ common species) Time Passes, Species becomes more evolved
Least To most According To Chart Filled in = Obtained Trait First Do Chart Than Construct Cladogram Charles Darwin Georges Buffon Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck Georges Cuvier 3 Observations Including Made Individuals within a
population vary in
their traits More off spring are
Produced than can
survive due to limited
resources Individuals with advantageous traits will survive, reproduce and that trait will become more common Voyage to Galapagos Islands Finches Beak size
based on what they ate Each Island had own
species of tortoise Based on his Where he noticed Lead to Theory of Including changed over time explanation Speculation Believed that species But had no so ideas remained Including Use and Disuse Inheritance of
acquired traits larger + stronger smaller + weaker Used Structures Became Unused Structures Became All species evolve in
respond to environment Individuals pass on
characteristics parents
got during life time Stretched Giraffe Necks Example Including Charles Lyell Catastrophism Theory Of Catastrophies Floods) caused Extinction of Species And was replaced With New Species Fossils Studied Complex Organisms at Top Simple Organisms found throughout Including Uniformitarianism Proposed theory of past same way as today Earth changed In Old Earth Is Changes Are Slow and Gradual Favourable traits = population better adapted to CURRENT environment Where individuals with Adaption is Structure/Behavior/Process That helps an Organism survive In a Particular Environment Mimicry Such As colour of structure Harmful Species Where species resembles Where species resembles Is Forms Has three Causes Small phenotype ratios lead to Has Patterns LEGEND
Micro-Evolution
Macro Evolution
Natural Selection
Theorists
Cladistics
Evidence for Evolution
Types of Changes
Pathways
Artificial Selection
Mutations
Genetic Drift
Non-Random Mating
Gene Flow Artificial Selection Mutation Gene Flow Genetic Drift Non-Random Mating Stabilizing:
Favours Intermediate ie. middle sized beaks
in humming birds Directional
Favours 1 extreme ie. longer beaks in humming birds
for longer flowers.
Shorter beaks die out Disruptive
Favours Opposite Extremes ie. Humming birds can either have long or short beaks. Depends on flower they choose. Is the change in DNA structure Gene Pool Includes Which is the Total # of genes
in population Is Migration which
Results Changes In Small Population Only Happens in Has Different Types Bottle Neck Founder Effect Decreases a Population Where Natural Disaster Only a sample Alleles remain and by chance Certain traits = more frequent Where few individuals Find new location Carry some allele's from original population's where change causes Where Change Causes that pile up can lead to where mating is Assigned For Specific Traits sexual dimorphism often leads to where males/females of species Look/Act Differently from Rest of population Fast and Specific Has mating that is Divergent/
Adaptive Radiation Convergent Past Life Is The remains/traces of Found In Sedimentary Rock Chronological Order Biogeography Is past/present Geographical distribution Of Species population where close environments have Related Species Anatomy Homologous Structure where there is Analogous Structure Has similar Structures Has different Function Has Similar Has Different Embryology DNA Used to compare Organisms used to see Pre-Birth Stages where similar embryos show Common ancestral Origin Co Evolution where organisms Colonize empty environments where distantly-related species Live in similar environments develop similar adaptions where species evolves because Other species evolved Including Including Including Including which is Including Including Including Where Environment chooses traits Including Made theories of where such as such as such as such as such as
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