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IB Biology Cloning

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Taylor Lashbrook

on 7 February 2013

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Transcript of IB Biology Cloning

Process for Reprogramming the cells Benefits of using iPS cells in medicine and research Cloning Vanessa Cuellar & Taylor Lashbrook Dolly died younger than normal because when she was cloned, she was cloned by an old sheep which cells were also old. When the old cells were cloned, the possibility of diseases and age were also cloned. Even though Dolly was a newborn, she had the cells of an old sheep, which led to her death at a younger age. Cloning was originally started to show that genetic material is not lost during cell division. A few scientists tested this theory and successfully grew clones. In 1951 a scientist changed the process of cloning and used the nucleus to eventually introduce nuclear transplant. This step helped two teams in 1986 to attempt the cloning a mammals. What are iPS stem cells? "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells" - cells that are genetically modified by the integration of up to four DNA-transcription factors into the adult cell genome. Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning Reproductive cloning is the creating of a genetically identical organism through transfer of a differentiated diploid nucleus. Fore example: after the inner cell masses are created in an embryonic development it is put into a surrogate. Therapeutic cloning is the creating of an embryo as a source of stem cells, by transfer of a differentiated diploid nucleus. For example: After the inner cell mass is created in an embryonic development it is cultured. This research eventually led to the cloning of a sheep named Dolly by differentiated nucleus. Yes it is more common than people would think. Examples of naturally occurring clones include identical twins, Plant Cuttings, and Asexual Reproduction. Applications and Benefits of Therapeutic Cloning The main benefit is that therapeutic cloning can be used for medical applications. It can be used for transplants in cases with burns, it can fix and replace the damaged tissues of your body, and it can lessen the possible risk of rejection of cells. What is a Clone? Why did Dolly Die young, but of age-related illnesses. History Dolly Steps to Cloning Dolly 1. Udder cells were taken from one sheep and unfertilized egg cells were taken from another sheep.
2. The udder cells were cultured to switch their genes off and asleep by culturing them in a low nutrient medium.
3. In each egg, the nucleus was taken out by using a micro-pipette.
4. Egg cells were combined with the donor cells
5. The combined cells grew and later became embryos which were planted into a surrogate mother sheep.
6. Dolly is born A clone is a group of genetically identical organisms or a group of genetically identical cells derived from a single parent cell. Can clones naturally occur? Differentiated Nucleus A nucleus that has cells that haven't gone through differentiation and haven't developed in different ways. Why was the Differentiated Nucleus taken from an udder cell? Udder cells have substances in them that help blood clotting. If the differentiated cell's neucleus is taken away scientists can use it to help hemophiliacs who are suffereing from not being able to perform normal blood clotting. Ethical Considerations of Therapeutic cloning Advantages:
it can reduce suffering and save lives
cells are separated and taken away when the embryos have no nervous system which makes it pain free when the cells are removed Disadvantages:
every human embryo has the possibility of becoming a human being, so killing an embryo is like killing a human being
risk and danger of embryonic stem cells becoming tumor cells
more than enough embryos could be purposely made for financial benefit

1. Extract skin cells from the organism
2. Use 4 genes that have similarities and combine them with some chemicals to make stem cells that are not embryonic stem cells but something similar. It would permit for creation of cell lines that are genetically tailored to a patient. This could eliminate the concern of immune rejection, where the body's immune system identifies implanted cells or tissues as unknown and attacks them.
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