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humanities

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Douglas Brown

on 29 November 2016

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Transcript of humanities

Humanities
history
religion
philosophy
art & music
literature
Cave Paintings
Chauvet Cave, France, 33,000 years old, found 1994
Altamira Cave, Spain, 21- 13,000 years old, found 1880
Lascaux, France, 17- 12,000 years old, found 1940
Judaism
Venus of Willendorf
24000-22000 BCE
discovered 1908 in Austria
---- 11cm
Paleolithic- Old Stone Age
2.6 million to 10,000 BCE
Nomadic
Hunting-Gathering
Split Rock, Australia
some sites used up to 13,000 years
Some sites in Australia may date back over 40,000 years
Mesolithic- middle stone age
10,000-5,000 BCE in Europe
Neolithic- new stone age
farming, animal husbandry
pottery, metallurgy, wheel, henges,
Copper Age, 5000 BCE:
Metallurgy, Wheel, Domestication of the horse,

Bronze Age, 3300-1200 BCE:
writing, literature, sword, chariot

Iron Age, around 1200 BCE- 400 CE
alphabetic writing
Modern Marvels: Bible Tech
(ziggurats,
ziggurat
made of mud bricks, not stone
temples with shrine on top
center of cities
Modern Marvels: Axes, Swords, and Knives
2010
21 centruy BCE
Early Bronze Age
Cuneiform
Sumer around 3000 BC
stylus
3100 BC
Mask of Warka
Lady of Uruk
"Sumerian Mona Lisa"
Warm Up: Who is more important, the individual or the community? Why?
Should the individual sacrifice for the good of the community?
What is the purpose of the community?
Rate the following in order of importance.
a. being from Kalkaska (local)
b. being from Michigan (state)
c. being from the United States (national)
d. being from earth (global)
Uruk-Home city of Gilgamesh, King about 2500 BC

"The Epic of Gilgamesh" is among the earliest surviving works of literature.

The story centers on a friendship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu.

Enkidu is a wild man created by the gods as Gilgamesh's equal to distract him from oppressing the people of Uruk.

Together, they journey to the Cedar Mountain to defeat Humbaba, its monstrous guardian.

Later they kill the Bull of Heaven, which the goddess Ishtar sends to punish Gilgamesh for spurning her advances. As a punishment for these actions, the gods sentence Enkidu to death.

The later half of the epic focuses on Gilgamesh's distress at Enkidu's death, and his quest for immortality.

In order to learn the secret of eternal life, Gilgamesh undertakes a long and perilous journey to find the immortal flood hero, Utnapishtim.

He learns that "The life that you are seeking you will never find. When the gods created man they allotted to him death, but life they retained in their own keeping."

His fame however lived on after his death, because of his great building projects, and his account of what Utnapishtim told him happened during the flood.

The story has been translated into many different languages, and Gilgamesh has since become adapted in works of popular fiction.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is the story of King Gilgamesh of Uruk who oppresses his people.

As punishment, the gods send him a companion, Enkidu, who is his mirror image and becomes his good friend.

Together, Gilgamesh and Enkidu defy the gods by killing the giant Humbaba, cutting down the sacred cedar forest which he guards, and killing the Bull of Heaven.

Enkidu has ominous dreams of the destiny of tyrants who become slaves in the House of Death. Enkidu finally dies of an illness sent by the gods.

Horrified by Enkidu's death and the prospect of his own demise, Gilgamesh undertakes a quest for immortality which brings him to the abode of Utnapishtim, a virtuous man who obeys the gods and was saved by them from the Great Flood.

Utnapishtim puts Gilgamesh to various tests which he fails and eventually sends him away, assuring him that he cannot escape death. A humbled Gilgamesh returns to Uruk and orders his story to be inscribed in stone.
Hammurabi
1792-1750 BC

Hammurabi's laws

If someone cuts down a tree on someone else's land, he will pay for it.

If someone is careless when watering his fields, and he floods someone else's by accident, he will pay for the grain he has ruined.

If a man wants to throw his son out of the house, he has to go before a judge and say, "I don't want my son to live in my house any more." The judge will find out the reasons. If the reasons are not good, the man can't throw his son out.

If the son has done some great evil to his father, his father must forgive him the first time. But if he has done something evil twice, his father can throw him out.

If a thief steals a cow, a sheep, a donkey, a pig, or a goat, he will pay ten times what it is worth. If he doesn't have any money to pay with, he will be put to death.

An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. If a man puts out the eye of another man, put his own eye out. If he knocks out another man's tooth, knock out his own tooth. If he breaks another man's bone, break his own bone.

If a doctor operates on a patient and the patient dies, the doctor's hand will be cut off.

If a builder builds a house, and that house collapses and kills the owner's son, the builder's son will be put to death.

If a robber is caught breaking a hole into the house so that he can get in and steal, he will be put to death in front of that hole.

If a son strike his own father, his hands shall be cut off.
http://eawc.evansville.edu/essays/brown.htm
Gilgamesh about 2500 BC
two-thirds god and one-third man

If death is unavoidable, what is the purpose of life?
What do we do to be remembered after we are gone?
How do we avoid being forgotten?
Which continent do you know more about today?

Which continent do you know more about in 1000-0 BC?

Why do you think this might be?
Otzi
about 3300 BC
rediscovered 1991
Who decides what merits cruel and unusual?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XJoDbeREUBk&feature=related
Gold Helmet for King of Kish
With many religions there are many ideas about what happens after death.

How might our society be effected by not having a common answer to the question of what happens after we die?

The First Amendment of the Constitution protects religious freedom.
He is sometimes regarded as the first person in recorded history to create a multi-ethnic, centrally ruled empire
Sargon the Great
born circa 2300 BC, reigned 2270-2215 BC

Sargon's vast empire is thought to have included large parts of Mesopotamia parts of modern-day Iran, Asia Minor and Syria.

He ruled from a new, but as yet archaeologically unidentified capital, Akkad

stele
used to:
publish laws and decrees,
to record a ruler's exploits and honors,
to mark sacred territories or mortgaged properties,
as territorial markers, or
to commemorate military victories
1. Codes of Conduct/Civic Virtues.
Protecting Natural Rights- Life, Liberty, Property.

2. Who is in charge? Nobility and/or clergy controlling/guiding society.

3. What happens when we die?
Who or what might cause our death?

4. Why are we here? How will we be able to make a living?

5. Expression: Themes of art, music, literature.
Show values of society; warnings. Who produces it?
7 billion people on earth
310+ million Americans
2008:
1.333 billion Chinese
1.140 billion India
2 billion Christians (1 billion Catholics)
1 billion Muslims
14 million Jewish (1/4 live in U.S.)
Cuneiform,
it was the norm,
3000 BC,
5000 years from me
Cities require three things

1. surplus food
2. job specialization
3. ruling class/social classes
Writing helps men pass knowledge on !
Ur Bull golden
lyre
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