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Oregon Trail

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by

Lily Cooper

on 17 March 2014

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Transcript of Oregon Trail

Wagon Wheels' Gathering Point
Kansas City
Fort McPherson
(still here)

1. Major Hardships for the pioneers were diseases like cholera, not having enough supplies and axles, needed food and had to leave supplies behind.
Fort Sidney
(still here)

Fort Kearney
(still here)

The main entrance into Kansas
Alcove Spring
Topeka
Pappan brothers operated two ferries that crossed the Kansas River
Jefferson
Louis Vieux built a toll bridge across Red Vermillion that charged $1.00 per wagon. He made about $300.00 in a day.
3. My prediction of how many days it would take to cross Missouri would be probably 1 month.
Scottsbluff
North platte
Landmarks
Missouri River, the northeastern boundary of Kansas, was usually the main route taken by settlers.
Platte River
The Kansas and Missouri River were two major obstacles for settlers traveling west. These settlers had to pay high prices to have their supplies and themselves carried across the rivers by ferries.
Kansas River's cost of ferries was high. Settlers had to transport all their belongings over the river. If you didn't bring a canoe or a few bucks, well sucks for you!
Missouri River
Sand Hills
Landmarks
Sand Hills- currently, this region is an area of rolling hills covered with prairie grass and wetlands dotted around. During the time of the Oregon Trail, they were sand dunes.
Riverboats delivered passengers and supplies to the "jumping off points" using the Missouri River
Helped speed settlement and development in the American Midwest
Platte River- pioneers had to cross this river in order to reach Wyoming. It is one of the hardest challenges in Nebraska. The river is about one mile wide.
St.Joseph
Animals
Chimney Rock- This strange rock signaled the ending of the flat plains. Onward, the pioneers would face a more steep and rugged landscape.
Chimney Rock
Animals
Random Facts
Red Vermillion (River)--a toll bridge was built to help settlers travel across to the other side by foot (Must pay as well)
The Donner Party, John C. Frémont, Marcus Whitman, Mormons, and gold-seekers resided here.
Independence Crossing
Big Blue River was gathering place for thousands of wagons.
"THE GREAT AMERICAN DESERT"
KANSAS
Fort Hays
Nowadays, Fort Hays is a State Historic Site
Fort Larned
Today, Fort Larned is a National Historic Site
Fort Leavenworth
Fort Leavenworth is an U.S. army fort still being used.
Beautiful Scenery and Fertile Land
Missouri River
Kansas River
Big Blue River
Smoky Hills
Smoky Hills was hard to cross due to Indian attacks. The lack of water and resources made the journey dangerous through these hills.
To get across the Columbia River, most people took ferry's because other options were too risky. But ferry prices were outrageously high. So, Sam Barlow and his men made a path from The Dalles to Willamette Valley and avoided the river altogether. He then charged $5 a wagon and made a fortune and 10 cents per head of livestock.
Animals on Oregon Trail in Kansas
Bison, or buffalo, roamed in herds. In some of the settlers' diaries, they wrote that these animals were EVERYWHERE.
Prairie dogs, which some settlers took in as pets, live in this habitat too. These creatures live in underground tunnels.
RANDOM FACTS
165 miles of the Oregon Trail was in Kansas.
I predict it would take 12 days to cross the Oregon Trail in Kansas.
Native American tribes in Kansas

included the Arapaho, the

Comanche, the Kansa, the Kiowa,

the Missouri, the Osage, the Otoe,

and the Pawnee. Kansas actually

originates from the Siouan Indian

word (from the native tribe)

"Kansa," which means "south wind

people.
Coyotes, which feed on bison and prairie dogs, are also found here. Settlers should beware of these animals, since they are very strong when hunting in herds.
Buffalo- these animals were important for the pioneers. They supplied hide for warmth and clothes, and food.
(still existing) is a large grannite rock where travelers would also carve their names
(still existing)
was originally a fur trading post but then became a vital resupply point for wagons.

Rattlesnakes- these were one of the most dangerous animals faced. Their poison could kill if not treated.
Jackrabbits- Jackrabbits were the most common animals on the Nebraska area of the trail. They were used as food also.
The Oregon Trail in Nebraska alone was about 300 miles long.
In Nebraska, I think that it would take about 10 days to follow the Oregon Trail.
You could get supplies from some of the forts along the path. Also, for trading some of your useless supplies for the supplies that you would need.
Oregon
At least 15 tribes have lived in Nebraska, such as the Lakota, Pawnee, Oto, Kansas, Missouri, Arapaho, and Cheyenne.
After traveling the dry plains, seeing the Grande Ronde brought the travelers relief.
Animals On The Oregon Trail In Oregon
(still exists) it sits
at the bottom of a long climb that leads to the crossing of the south pass so travelers could recharge.

Landmarks
Fun Facts
During July and August most river crossings were very hard because of all the extra water in the river due to snow melt water. Families had to take a big risk and use the raft to get across.
Register cliff was made out of sandstone and where travelers wold scribe their names into the stone. It was also a key checkpoint and let the travelers know they were heading in the right direction.
The Green River: 3 to 5 ferries were available to travel in and it was the most dangerous crossing in Wyoming because of the high water levels.
Wyoming Range is a mountain range in which a Branch of the Trail called Lander Road led to. Going through here massively shaved off traveling time.
Animals
Buffalo: used by travelers for food, and to keep warm. The travelers also saw the Buffalo quite often.
Oxen: Very similar to Buffalo. Travelers also saw Oxen very often, and they were useful for their meat.
Wolves: Seen as predators and ate the weak buffalo. However, travelers very often killed them
Landmarks
Major hardships of crossing the Kansas were the rivers. Settlers had to transport their belongings by either ferries, bridges, or canoes.
Independence
You can get supplies for $200, including a

covered wagon, teams of oxen, 150 pounds of

food per person, tobacco, cooking gear, extra

shoes, two sets of clothes, 25 pounds of soap,

washboard and wash tub, tent, a canvas or

rubber groundcloth with blankets for sleeping,

tools, guns and ammunition, and sometimes a

trail guide book.
Fort Hall
Fort Boise
Craters Of The Moon
The Whitman mission offered medical aid and religious services for travelers and the local Cayuse Indians by Marcus and Narcissa Whitman.
Three Island Crossing
Shoshone Falls
Originally built in 1834 by Nathaniel Wyeth, Fort Hall is where the Oregon trail split off into the California Trail.
Major trading post
Most popular "jumping off point" for pioneers to stock their wagons with supplies before heading to Oregon
Forts
Fort Boise was built by British's Hudson Bay Company in 1834. It was a place to get supplies in the Oregon Trail. Later on it was abandoned because of the many Native American attacks and flooding.
Bison
Hardships
Animals
Landmarks
Deer
Fort Walla Walla (fort Nez Perce) was the first military fort and provided lots of timber, grass, and water for the soldiers and their animals. It is still here today and is used as a historic museum.
The major hardships for emigrants on the Oregon trail were the many diseases that were easy to catch and would spread very quickly, the lack of food, and the injuries that could be easily infected (because of lack of proper care).
Soda Springs
Used for meat and hides
Soda Springs was one of the easiest parts of the Oregon Trail. There was carbonated water that bubbled out of the ground, and with sugar added it tasted very good. Today the only spring that did not dry up is Hoover Spring, a pavilion was built around it so people could watch it.
4. Some of the major indian tribes from the Oregon trail are the Cheyenne and pawnee and Shoshone and Nez perce which were along the Oregon trail.
Ate the meat
Used bones and antlers for weapons
Had hides for warmth
A modern-day picture of the fort.
A drawing of the fort before the Ward massacre.
A drawing of the fort after the massacre.
I think it would take about 17 days to cross the trail in Wyoming
You can get supplies from forts such as Fort Bridger and Fort Laramie, or you could trade some of your supplies for others
The trail was about 375 miles long.
A statute in Fort Boise.
A modern day picture of the fort.
A drawing of the fort.
MISSOURI
The first landmark in Idaho on the Oregon trail is Soda Springs, it was here that people could rest and get supplies here. Native americans and fur trappers would also trade here.
Random Facts
The second landmark would be Fort Hall, here is where travelers would decide whether they wanted to continue on the Oregon trail or begin the trail to California. Early travelers used to have to leave their wagons behind and go on foot with their animals.
still here
still here
Fort Vancouver opened in 1824 and served as the Hudson Bay's fur trading company. It is open today as Fort Vancouver National Historic Site and a replica of the fort is shown to the public.
Fort Astoria was built in 1811 and was used for 33 years. It was the main post for the Pacific Fur Company. It's still here today and was added
Fort Dalles was built in 1850. It was mainly used to deal with wars with the Native Americans. Fort Dallas was listed in the National Register of Historical Places in 1971 and is still here today as a museum.
Many rattle snakes were found along the Oregon Trail between April and September. Their bites are deadly, and would require immediate aid.
Salmon were seen mostly along the Columbia River and rivers and small streams along the trail. Salmon was an abundant source of food.
Coyotes were often found along the Oregon Trail. Coyotes often dug up the bodies of dead travelers along the trail and were seen to travels as predators.
Fort Vancouver
Fort Walla Walla
Fort Astoria
Barlow Road
Grande Ronde
Fort Dalles
Fun facts
The Oregon Trail through Oregon is about 200 miles long.
I predict it would take 15 days to cross the trail through Oregon.
You can get supplies from Whitman Mission and Fort Walla Walla
Crossing through Oregon had hardships such as the Columbia River, weather, disease, animal attacks
Bison were commonly found throughout the Oregon Trail and could usually be seen in large herds. Due to their large size, a single hunted bison was very useful to travelers on the trail.
My prediction for how long it would have took for emigrants to travel the Oregon Trail in Idaho is around one month.
One of the smaller animals encountered on the trail was the prairie dog. These could be seen when they came out of their underground dens. a woman even adopted one of them.
Out of the around 2,000 miles on the Oregon Trail, about 510 miles were in Idaho.
Diary Entry
DIARY
Water trickles down the stream nearby, where our oxen are sipping from, as water droplets from the mist gather on my face.

The cool breeze carries melodies of tweeting birds from the west, as if beckoning us to their homes beyond the hills where the bison roam freely and plentiful salmon control the rivers.

Back in the east, the clouds seem to wave their goodbyes to us and wish us a safe journey.

With the friendly Native American support we have received on our journey, I predict it would take us two weeks to cross the Kansas plains and fertile soil.

Unlike the bustling streets and hectic movements of the east, the west opens opportunities for freedom of the land and its wildlife along with the tranquility found only in nature.

The image of being stricken with the cholera that has been spreading in the west is overcome by the thought of the coziness of a log cabin with heat coming from a small furnace and the smell of the forest from the wooden furniture stationed inside.

The damp grass beneath me tickles my feet as I gaze across the horizon, to where my new home would be, where I could live with nature, and explore the beauty of the frontier.

Dear Diary,
Finally the long day has come to an end and
my husband and I have finally managed to put
the three kids to bed. We are currently traveling
through Wyoming for the 8th day now, and we predict have about 9 days left until we reach Idaho. My feet are killing me after having to trudge through the vast expanse of land, and I have long since given up tryng to scrape the thick layer of mud caked under my fingernails. I have yet to run my fingers through my hair, scared that my fingers will get stuck in the coarse mess, and I can only hope we will be able to find a stream to help out with the constant scratching at the back of my throat. We have given most of the food to my husban, so the constant grumble of my stomach is a persistent noice in my ears. We are forced to travel in constant fear of the Sioux or the Shonone tribes coming after us, so I must sleep tonight with one eye open before we embark on another long, miserable day of travel. I just hope this will all be worth it in the end.
My family and I have finally made it to Nebraska. I am very confident that this will be a rather easy excursion. There have been no charted Indian attacks, so I am not fearful of this journey. I predict that it will take at least 10 days to get across Nebraska, since the terrain is very smooth and calm. The only challenge that I have heard we must face is the harsh force of the Platte River. How in the world will we cross it? It will be difficult, but in the long run, it will be worth it for the serene and easy life in the west.
Dear Diary,
Today I spent all day walking along side the wagon with my family. Each second has been more difficult than the last. The local Native American tribes surround us, leaving us fearful of their every movement. As the days have gone by, our food is becoming scarce and our spirits dreadful. We have become desperate knowing that Winter is near. Since my mother died along the road, every pain-staking moment seems to drag on. I am beginning to wonder if our dreams of freedom have been worth it, and my Father has too. My younger sister has become ill, and I do not think I can survive another heartbreaking death. Terrified and stressed, my feelings have begun tohaunt me. With my mind body numb, it is getting hard to hold on to what little hope I have.
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