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Genetically Modified Food and Human Health

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Josh Maus

on 23 October 2014

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Transcript of Genetically Modified Food and Human Health

Genetically Modified Food and Human Health
Solving a Modern-day Ethical Dilemma
Presented by Josh Maus, Catherine Tippets, Joe Ferronato, & Catherine Henry
The dilemma: Should we keep "food as food," or use Science and Technology to improve it?
"Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you who you are."

- Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin
GMO Health Benefits
Using the technology we have at our disposal today can make our food safer because we can eliminate the use of chemical pesticides on our food.
Pesticides are deadly not just to a certain insect, but to everything and can cause damage in humans.
Pesticides effect the nervous system, and in most cases irritate eyes and skin. Many are carcinogenic, and some effect the hormone or endocrine systems in the body.
Avoidance of Chemical Pesticides
What is Genetic Engineering?
GMO Health Benefits
Avoidance of Chemical Pesticides
So what does this mean for us? What can we do about it?
GMOs are the new technology that can take us away from these harmful pesticides!
GMOs may be scary because they are a new technology, but in the long run can help improve health of people everywhere.
(old technology vs. new technology)
Our focus: GMOs and Human Health
Biofortification/nutrient supplementation
Avoidance of chemical pesticides
Mother and fetal exposure to GMO foods
Scientific studies
Conclusion and discussion
What is Genetic Engineering?
GMO Health Risks
Maternal and Fetal Exposure to GMO Foods
3-MPPA was detectable in 100% of pregnant women's blood samples vs. 67% of non-pregnant women.
3-MPPA is a metabolite of Gluphosinate.
Cry1AB toxin was detectable in 93% of maternal blood samples and 80% of fetal blood samples vs. 69% of non-pregnant women.
Cry1AB is the Bt toxin in Gluphosinate.
GMO Health Studies
Studies done on rats have shown significant risks associated with GM crops:
50% of offspring died from mothers fed GM soy vs. 10% of offspring from mothers fed non-GM soy.
A study done in 2009 found that three types of GM corn that have been approved have been linked to kidney and liver failure.
A study done on rats fed genetically modified maize found signs of hepatorenal toxicity.
The American Academy of Environmental Medicine found serious health risks.
Sources
Aris, Aziz, and Samuel Leblanc. "Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada." Reproductive Toxicology 31.4 (2011): 528-533.
Sralini, Gilles-Eric, Dominique Cellier, and Joël Spiroux De Vendomois. "New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity." Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 52.4 (2007): 596-602.
Smith, Melissa Diane. "Say no to GMOs." Better Nutrition 73.3 (2011): 46-50. Academic Search Premier. Web. 13 Oct. 2014.
Biofortification: Golden Rice
"Adrian, can I have some of your awesome Golden Rice?"
GMO Health Benefits
Biofortification/Nutrient Supplementation
Overview of Presentation
Conclusion and Discussion
Nash, J. Madeleine, and Simon Robinson. "Grains of Hope. (Cover Story)." Time 156.5 (2000): 38 Academic Search Premier. Web. 17 Oct. 2014.
Health risks and unsettling evidence
GMO Health Concerns
Some unsettling evidence
New concept, health concerns over long haul are unknown.
Available commercially since 1994 - FlavrSavr tomato.
Overall rise in chronic disease s associated with GMOs
Increase in number of cases of autoimmune diseases
Health experts agree on potential for GMO-related food allergies.
Why? Our immune system is set up to fight off foreign materials
Young, Allison "GMOs, Friend or Foe?" Natural Health 42.4 (2012): 46-50. Academic Search Premier. Web 13 Oct. 2014.
DNA is the recipe book for all living things.
Small segments of DNA are called genes.
Made up of 4 bases: A, T, C, G (think of these as the genetic alphabet, and groups of three as sentences).
Each gene holds the instructions for making a single protein.
Groups of 3 bases code for a specific amino acid.
Genetic engineering is like taking a recipe from one book, and adding it to another!
Biofortification
is the process of breeding (in this case genetic engineering) crops to increase their nutritional value.
But why?...
Solution for nutritional deficiencies in developing countries:
Avoid further processing after crops are harvested.
Folic acid (vitamin B9)
Iron deficiency
Vitamin A
And many others...
Less reliance on vitamin supplementation programs.
Nutritional independence for developing countries.
Final conclusion:
More INDEPENDENT, long-term testing is needed to assure the safety of GMO foods!
Group member final thoughts:
Josh
Catherine T.
Catherine H.
Joe
Questions?
Paarlberg, Robert. "Download PDFs." GMO Foods and Crops: Africa's Choice. N.p., 5 July 2010. Web. 21 Oct. 2014
"Human Health Issues-Pesticides-US EPA." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
Entine, Jon. "2000+ Reasons Why GMO Are Safe To Eat And Environmentally Sustainable." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2014.
Dubock, A. Crop conundrum. Nutritional Reviews [serial online]. January 2009;67(1):17-20. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed October 15, 2014.
Golden Rice-2 from Syngenta Corporation
Contains more Beta-carotene than previous version
One 8 oz cup provides 450 mcg of retinol
Uses genes from corn and a soil microorganism
Safety measures taken
Time-limited biotech patents
Full transcript