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FUneral Service Microbiology

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Kiska Harris

on 8 September 2014

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Transcript of FUneral Service Microbiology

Microbiology
The scientific study of microorganisms and their effect on other LIVING organisms
Funeral Service Microbiology
In the 19th century many believed that life forms emerged from nonliving matter, which is known as SPONTANEOUS GENERATION. Prior to this, in ancient times the belief was that certain spirits in the air gave rise to life forms. It would not be until 1859 that French scientist Louis Pasteur disproved SPONTANEOUS GENERATION by conducting an experiment using broth samples in swan neck flasks. The process, PASTEURIZATION, is named after him in which liquids are boiled as a method of destroying microorganisms (i.e. Milk). He
FYI
Vaccination
In 1789, English physician Edward Jenner created a vaccine for smallpox which was derived from cowpox blisters. His correct hypothesis was based on his observation that those who developed cowpox never contracted smallpox. Process became known as vaccination
Germ Theory of Disease
In 1865 Robert Hooke observed cells using a crude microscope apparatus which consisted of lenses. These "cells" or "little boxes" were the smallest structural forms reported.
Germ Theory of Disease
In the 1860s physician Joseph Lister was the first to advocate aseptic practices and called for the antiseptic treatment of surgical instruments with phenolic solutions in order to minimize fatalities and nosocomial infections
pg 263
The Germ Theory of Disease is the belief that diseases are caused by microorganisms.
In 1876, Robert Koch devised criteria for establishing the causation of disease by microorganisms which are known as KOCH’S POSTULATES.

1).
Bacteriology
= The science that studies bacteria
2).
Rickettsiology
= The science that studies Rickettsia
**Rickettsia is a genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracellular parasitic bacteria (will be discussed in further detail later in this course)



DIVISIONS OF MICROBIOLOGY
Introduction
3). Virology = The study of viruses
and viral diseases
4). Protozoology = The science that is
concerned with the study of protozoa
5). Mycology = The branch of science
concerned with the study of fungi

Between 1674 and 1683 Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe microorganisms which he described as “animalcules”. The argument that in order to see spontaneous generation in action, one needed only to place hay in water and observe it under the microscope to see the new creations was calls "animalcules".
1). Bacteria
A prokaryotic one-celled microorganism of the Kingdom Monera, existing as free-living organisms or as parasites, multiplying by binary fission and having a large range of biochemical properties. Pathogenetic microorganisms are disease causing microorganisms.
The process, PASTEURIZATION, is named after him in which liquids are boiled as a method of destroying microorganisms (i.e. Milk). He
Louis Pasteur concluded that microorganisms were everywhere-even in the air.
The modern medicine community accepts Rudolph Virchow's 1858 theory of biogenesis, which is based on the theory that no life-form can spontaneously appear.
The Magic Bullet
Scientists in the 1870's agreed that disinfectants could control microorganism outside the body. Since this was the belief they felt as thought the same could be said about microorganisms inside the body.

The idea that a chemical, which was called a "magic bullet" could be used to destroy a disease-causing microorganism in the body, without harming the infected person, was the foundation of modern pharmaceutical treatments.
Paul Ehrlich was German physician who studied staining of animal tissues as a medical student.

He began searching for the "magic bullet" that would treat syphilis.
Eight years later in 1907, Ehrlich discovered the usefulness of arsenic-based drugs against protozoa (type of pathogenic microorganism -causes diseases in humans) infections that caused trypanosomiasis (African sleeping diseases).
It is important to know that there is no "magic bullet" and that all drugs have side effects on the body and the mixing of medications with other prescription medication, with illicit drugs, or alcohols can be deadly.
As an embalmer its important
to recognize the effects of
prescription medications on
the condition of the human remains.
Naming of Microorganisms
Prefixes, root words and suffixes

Micro- extremely small
bio- life
coccus- shaped like a sphere or ball
staphyl- clustered together
aureus- golden-yellow covered
Staphylococcus aureus -something the looks similar to a bunch of golden colored grapes.


The first antibiotic was discovered by accident in 1928 by Alexander Fleming.
This specific mold was later named penicillin, and it was originally produced on corn and decomposing cantaloupe in Illinois. Approximately 400 million units of penicillin had been produced before WWII.
Eukaryotic Cells Versus Prokaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic Cells- described from other cells by the presences of a nuclei, cytoskeleton and membrane bound organelles. Most human being are eukaryotic.
Prokaryotic Cells- don't have a nucleus, cytoskeleton or membrane bound organelles.


Eukaryotic means "true nucleus.
Prokaryotic means "before nucleus.
Eukaryotic cells are normally, ten times the size of prokaryotic cells.
Kingdoms, pg 268
There are five kingdoms used to classify all biological (life) forms which include Prokaryotae and Eukaryotes cells. They are classified by their shared characteristics.
Monera- only one composed of prokaryotic cells.
Protists- the most ancient eukaryotic kingdom, contains a variety of eukaryotic forms.
Fungi- Multicellular group of cells with multiple nuclei enclosed within cell walls.
Plants- are immoblie, multicellular eukaryotes that produce their food by photosynthesis and have cells in the cellulose cell walls.
Animalia- are multicellular eukaryotic capable of mobility at some stage during their lives, and their cells lack cell walls.
Microorganisms have first and last name just like humans.
Each microbe has both a first name, referring to is genus and a second name, referring to it's species.
ex. dog genus- cani
2.Mycoplasms
Bacteria of the Mycoplasma genus that are found in humans and have no cell wall; the smallest, simplest self replicating bacterium free-living organisms presently known being intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria.
Characteristics: fried - egg shape, some feed on the urea, or other cholesterol.
Cause a variety of urogenital (urinary and genital organs) tract infections.
3.
Ricketettsias
A genus of gram-negative, pathogenic (capable of producing disease), intracellular parasitic bacteria. Rod shaped, sphere shaped, or may change shapes. Spread through arthropod vectors, such as lice, fleas, ticks, or mites. Commonly found in the small blood vessels of the heart, brain, and skin.

4.
Chlamydia -

A large group of non-motile, gram
negative intracellular parasites.
Chamydia is not a virus, they are spherically shaped and contains no flagella or capsule.
In humans, chlamydia can cause
infections in the eye.
One celled organisms of the Kingdom Protista- most are unicellular although some are colonist.
There are more protozoa in the world than any other microorganism.
Four classifications of protozoa:
flagellates
amoebae
sporozoans
ciliates
Protozoa causes disease such as malaria, brain infections adn infections inthe skin and lungs.
6.
Protozoa
-
Fungi (mycology)
-
A group of diverse and widespread unicellular and multicellular organisms, lacking chlorophyll (grow on decomposing matter) and are called saprophytes. Usually bear spores and often filamentous.
*Human fungal diseases are categorized by the level of tissue.
Cutaneus - infections of the skin (ring worm, athletes feet, jock itch)
Subcutaneous- trauma, may require surgery, usually originate within the tissue and the lungs.
Three fundamental categories of fungi are
yeast
molds
dimorphic fungi

Viruses, Prion -
Smallest category of disease-causing microorganisms is a
virus.
Intracellular, infectious parasite capable of living and replicating only in living cells.
Viruses have only one type of nucleic acid genome (full complement of genetic material) and therefore resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids.
Viruses can infect almost any living cell, including bacteria, fungi, parasites, plants, animals, and human beings.


KINGDOMS

In biology, life forms are classified and grouped according to their characteristics. This classification method is systemic and consists of divisions from general to specific in the following manner: KINGDOM -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus-> Species
**In Microbiology, Genus and Species are most important in the naming of microorganisms.

Table 20-2 page 274
(Virus Groups That Cause Disease in Humans)
Familiarize yourself with the virus groups and examples of each
This concludes Chapter 1
Full transcript