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Transcript of Pre-Columbian Americas
Time before European Influence in North and South America
Think Christopher Columbus
Bering Straight soon closed
isolated from rest of world Background Geography
Main areas were North America, Mesoamerica (includes Caribean), & South America
Ecological niches allowed for differences
Each civilization and area unique North America Anasazi Peoples 700-1300 CE
Rio Grande River Valley
"Ancient Ones" in Navajo Economy Culture/Relgion Political Mississippian Civilization Decline Economy Culture/ Religion Social Structure Political The Incas Social Structure Political Decline Mayans Economy Social Structure Political Technology Decline economy Toltecs Technology Aztecs/Mexica Economy Culture/Relgion Social Structure Political Political Stucture Technology & Decline Pre-Columbian
Americas Christopher Columbus
Spanish Exploration Overseas to New World
Ended the Pre-Columbian Era
Cultural Diffusion South America Culture/ Religion Technology Mountain and stars were sacred
Pyramids dedicated to the Sun and Moon
Many temples Powerful families and elite at top
priests had very high status
clothing showed status no single ruler
different political system
elite=powerful families controlled bureaucracy, trade and commerce Decline not definite
evidence of violent end (finally built walls)
all temples an everything else destroyed 200-900 CE, Classic Period
Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, & Southern Mexico
fragile soils Agrarian
swidden agriculture, irrigation, terraces, drained swamps
warfare was very important plazas-pyramids, mounds, & palaces
many decorated altars and monoliths
sun & heaven
sacrifice (mainly captives)
warfare religious although one main culture, not a unified state
rival kingdoms headed by hereditary rulers/kings
elite were religiously connected had no wheels
maths-0, place value notation
writing-similar to hieroglyphics, only true writing system in Americas at this time
astrology-calendar based off astrology, very accurate,
bark paper, pottery, much more struggled for resources
warfare due to social conflict
abandoned major urban centers 900-1175 CE
Not much is known
powerful, violent military power
headed by 2 kings
capital at Tula
declined due to outside military threat and power struggles 1325-1521 CE
initially Mexica people but went on to create Aztec Empire
Mexica had altepetl, tlatoani, & calpolli
centralized in present day Mexico city
head of Triple Alliance (Texcoco and Tlacopan) warlike like Toltecs
based on Tributary system
extensive trade to support massive pop.
Tenochtitlan monarchical system
capital at Tenochtitlan
powerful aristocrats had power
merchants no coinage
calendar Hernan Coretes from Spain conquered them agrarian
complex irrigation ceremonies in kivas (humans came from earth)
baked mud structures
pottery, cotton, crafts egalitarian
women-crafts, food, child
women had right to property based off kinship and age 800-1500 CE
Along Mississippi River
"Mound builders" mainly trade
imported-flint seashells, copper, mica egalitarian chiefdoms Pre-Columbian Era Aztecs VS Incas Chavin Incas Moche Huari Economy Economy Economy Economy Religion/ Culture Religion/ Culture Religion/ Culture Political Structure Political Structure Political Structure Political Structure Social Structure Social Structure Social Structure Social Structure Technology Technology Religion/ Culture Technology 100 BCE-750 CE
city-state Teotihuacan Agricultural Based
Farmers, Herders (llamas), Hunters Terrace Farming Chavin De Huantar ceremonial place By Julianne Miao &
Rani Rachavelpula Wealthy was elite
Priests also very wealthy, therefore elite
Women did household work Administrators to keep humans at work Invent quipu to keep records Culture/Relgion Decline Shrine had direct link to gods
rainfall tiles, ceramics, dyeing techniques, metalwork, and stonework 1430-1525 CE
Modern Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile Emperor divided to 4 suyus (quadrants)
Each suyu was overseen by apu maliku (governor related to emperor by blood and military leader)
Suyus then further divided into ayllus climate change, deforestation
split up- Native American tribes
central plaza-mound, trade center Culture/Relgion Technology Sapa Inca (supreme leader) Villac Umu (cheif priest) blood relatives of the Sapa Inca Patrilineal, but evidence of bilaterally
women-shamans, did housework, & healers
elite had tattoos and were decorated to stand apart from others All other Incans war was religious
20,000 people a year sacrificed
many gods with dual nature
Huitzilopochtli-main god, hummingbird, War & Sun
Jaguar, and feather serpent gods Social Structure male dominated but had "gender complementary"
women-weaving, household chores, teacher, priestesses
powerful aristocrats were at the top
social mobility Trade and service based
Pots, rope, silver, gold, llamsa Worshipped Huacas (things/places that are sacred
gods communicate through dreams
dual nature gods
Sun, moon, & stars
Women mourned and cut hair short after death (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Economy Social Structure Religion Similarities Aztecs Incans controlled by priests and military leaders Theocratic
Savage Political Structure Human Sacrifice Not unified Unified clans
Used roads and other mechanisms to unify empire Relgion dominated lives
many, dual gods
Sun god most important
afterlife, pyramids Made pottery, textiles, etc. Agricultural: corn potato
Military conquests for more supplies More organized classes
male dominated: women mourned after husband death Did not care about wealth
Merchants and warriors important
"gender complementary" No human sacrifice ruled by hereditary elite Technology drainage systems reclaimed marshes Stone masonary
pyramids, walled enclosures, reservoir population included elite and minor artisans and officials
mainly environmental but some warfare Stirrup spout vessel Economy 2/3 of population agriculture
irrigation, terraces, chinampas ("floating gardens)
little military involved (no walls or defense)
long distance trade Diverse Climate
Terrains range from jungle, desert, mountains, grassland
Amazon river basin
First societies in Andean Mountains-human cooperation and labor = rise of societies Molding technology 200-700 CE
Modern Peru agrarian
Paid taxes with labor to emperor Tribute
Agrarian Wealthy buried with gold, poor buried as servants for wealthy
Money and power concentrated 900-200 BCE
Highlands of modern northern Peru Decline: social instability (abandoned) Sierra region of Andes
Around time/linked to Tiwanaku Decline got conquested by the Incas Civil war & Regionalism
1533 CE spanish came for converts to Christianity and territory Decline unknown, climate change Works Cited
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