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world history

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Lillian Curme

on 16 January 2014

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Transcript of world history

world history
Goal #2
Middle Ages

Renaissance, Reformation and Exploration
Exploration and Scientific Revolution
Refer to Graphic Organizer (ripple)
French Revolution and Industrial Revolution
WWI, the Interwar Years and WWII
goal 1- Ancient Civilizations
Ancient Civilizations- Goal #1 8-12%
Byzantine Empire
Key Terms
Byzantine Empire- Eastern Roman Empire
Justinian I- Byzantine emperor- hoped to restore the old roman empire
Theodora- Justinian's wife and co-ruler of the Empire
Belisarius- Top general who led troops trying to re-conquer old Roman territory and defeated the Nika Revolt
mosaics- pictures made with tiny pieces of colored tile, glass or clay
icons- paintings or sculptures of sacred figures
clergy- church officials
Orthodox Church- church in the east
Rome and Early Christianity
Mesopotamia and Sumer
key terms-
fertile crescent

"Epic of Gilgamesh"
60 minutes
raw-material trade
social hierarchy
Sargon I--> world's first empire
Akkadian ruler= Akkadian Empire
Babylonian Empire
Amorite Tribe- took control of Mesopotamia
king- Hammurabi-- became king of Babylon
Hammurabi's Code- standard set of laws
Fertile Crescent Empires
Key Terms
Nebuchadnezzar II
Hittites- Indo-European tribe of Asia Minnor
Assyrians-siege warfare, fear and brutality
Chaldeans- conquered Assyria
Nebuchadnezzar II- Chaldean King, rebuilt Babylon
hanging gardens
Trade--> Mediterranean, Sidon & Tyre
Colonies- Carthage

Hebrews and Judaism
Key Terms
5 books of the Torah
covenant of the promise land: God to Abraham
Jacob- 12 tribes of Israel
freedom from the Pharoah
Mt. Sinai- 10 commandments
Saul, David and Solomon
Babylonian Captivity
Jewish code of ethics
obeying the law
Persian Empire
Key Terms
Cyrus the Great
Darius I
Persia under the Medes- rulers
Cryus the Great deafeats the Medes
CtG- Tolerance
CtG-conquers Babylon
Darius I- permanent army
>Ten Thousand Immortals
Darius I- cultural unity = peace
Royal Road
Susa and Persepolis- architecture
Early Greece
Key Terms
polis- city-state, politcal unit, independent
acropolis-raised area in polis--had temples
agora-marketplace below acropolis
helots- spartan slaves
hoplites- spartan foot soldiers
hubris-great pride
Minoans of Crete
Mycenaean states
constant war-->Trojan War
Sparta- Peloponnesus
Lycurgus- Combat system
12 gods of Olympus
The Classical Age
Key Terms
Democracy/Direct democracy
Solon- lawmaker who allowed all men in Athens to take part in government- assembly that governed, juries etc...
tyrant-ruler who seizes power by force
Cleisthenes- reformer who divided Athens into 10 tribes based on where people lived which became the basis for elections.
archon-chief of State in Athens- public servant
phalanx- tight rectangle combat formation
Pericles- Athenian politician- introduced payment to men who served in public office or on jury to encourage more people to participate in government
voters= free, male Athenians 20+ who had served in the military
3 bodies
assembly-voters ^^, passed laws
Council of 500- wrote laws
Court system- men from assembly
Ionian Rebels
1st Persian Invasion-->
2nd Persian Invasion- Battle of Thermopolae
Delian League vs Peloponnesian Leage=
Pelpponesian War
Golden Age
Greek Achievements
key terms
Socrates-Philosopher, Socratic method
Plato- "The Republic", The Academy
Aristotle-reason and logic, world around you, nature
reason- clear and ordered thinking
logic- process of making inferences
Homer- epics: "The Illiad and The Odyssey--> basis for greek education system
lyric poetry- subject= emotions and desires
Herdotus- history writer- "The Histories"
Thucydides- history writer- wrote about Pelopponisian war
Tradgedies & Comedies
Sculpture perfection
Alexander the Great
Key Terms
Alexander the Great- king of Macedonia
Hellenistic- Greek like
Euclid- Egyptian geometry founder
Eratosthenes- Egyptian- calculated circumference of globe
Archimedes- inventor- compound pulley, Archimedes Screw
Phillip II
conquered Greece, Persia, Phoenecia, Egypt, Central Asia and Asia Minor
Empire divided into 3 parts ruled by Antigonus, Seleucus and Ptolemy
^^united--> Hellinism spread around the world
Trade spread Hellinism and other cultures
Philosphy, Education, Art, Literature, Science, Technology
The Foundations of Rome
Key Terms
Republic- elected officials govern state
Patricians- wealthy, aristocrats
Plebeians- common people
veto- ban laws
Forum- central square
Constitution- political structure
Senate- body of elected officials- advised elected officials, handled pubic finances and foreign relations
Consuls- 2 ruling magistrates
Dictator- gave nearly unlimited power to holder for 6 months
Plebeian Council
Law of the Twelve Tables
Checks and balances
The Punic Wars
Conquest of Greece
From Republic to Empire
Key Terms
Gaius Marius-military leader elected consul-accepted anybody into army
Lucius Cornelius Sulla-consul--> dictator
Julius Caesar- conquered Gaul, roman dictator
triumvirate- rule of 3 men
Augustus- "the revered one". Originally Octavian- name change
Pax Romana- Roman Peace
Pompey and Crassus
Ides of March
2nd Triumvirate
Octavian-Marc Antony-Lepidus
East & West
Battle of
The Augustan Age
Horace, Ovid,
Livy & Home
Julio-Claudians & Flavians
The Good Emperors
Pax Romana
Provincial Government
Med. Sea
Grain- Egypt
Roman Society and Culture
Key Terms
villa- luxury country home
circuses- chariot races took place
paterfamilias- family father
augurs- priests who interpreted signs from the Gods
Galen- Roman physician
Ptolemy- astronomy
aqueducts- man-made channels to bring water to cities
Latin- language of Rome
civil law- form of law based on written code of laws
Bread and Circuses
Sewer System
Grid System of roads
Romance Languages
The Rise of Christianity
Key Terms
Christianity- religions based on teachings of Jesus
Messiah- Spiritual leader who
Jesus of Nazareth
Apostles- 12 disciples chosen by Jesus
Paul- Jewish apostle who expanded Christianity
martyrs- people who die for faith
Eucharist- christians eat bread & drink wine in memory of Jesus
bishop- important official, oversee church affairs
popes- Peter's spiritual heirs, leader of church
Zealots- rise up
God's Judgement Day
Roman Christianity
Edict of Milan
The Fall of Rome
Key Terms
Inflation- dramatic rice in prices
Diocletian- tried to save empire by dividing the empire in 2, assigning his co-emperor the other half, establishing an absolute monarchy and a rigid societal system
Attila- leader of the Huns- led attack on Gaul
Civil War
Tribal Invasions
Lack of Revenue= Increased taxes
Military Demands
Civil war between East and West
Constantine- reunited East and West
Germanic Tribes
Fall of the West
the Bosporus- Trade
Nika Revolt
Greens (poor) + Blues (rich)
Corpus Juris Civilis
Justinian's Code
Emperor has "divine right"
ended roman
Religious themes
common themes
Leo II
East V West
Hagia Sophia
Middle Ages
The High Middle Ages
the Early Middle Ages
Charlemagne's Empire
The Growth of Monarchies
Key Terms
Alfred the Great- King of Wessex, drove Vikings out of England
William the Conqueror- defeated king Harold in the Battle of Hastings
Domesday Book- book of information on people of England that William used to create a central tax system for England
Elanor of Aquitaine- powerful French duchess and wife of William- allowed William to expand farther into France
Magna Carta- document restricting the king's power
Parliament- governing body
Hugh Capet- Capetian- took control of France
Otto the Great
The Feudal and Manorial Systems
key terms
knights- highly skilled soldiers who fought on horseback
fief- land given to knight for his service
vassal- one who accepts a vassal (given to him by a Lord)
feudal system- exchanging land for service
fealty- oath of loyalty and promise to provide military service
manorial system- system built around manors
serfs- workers legally tied to the manors where they worked
New Invaders
Key Terms
navigation-planning a course across sea
sagas-Icelandic stories about great heroes and events
Leif Eriksson
Key terms
Papal States- region in central Italy under control of the Pope
counts- governors chosen to rule parts of empire
Fall of
Dark Ages
small kingdoms compete for control of land
Frankish kings take over and start the Carolingian Dynasty-- Charlemagne inherits throne
Charlemagne and his army save the Papal States and Pope Leo III
Pope Leo III names Charlemagne Emperor of the Roman People and says he has full support of the church and God
Charlemagne wants a christian empire, so everybody is required to convert or die
Charlemagne requires all churches and monasteries to open schools. He also brings in foreign scholars.
Vikings- Scandinavia
no soil-->food shortages-->raids
Lief Eriksson
Iberian Peninsula
St Peter's Basilica
Vikings, Magyar and Muslim invasions
Land $$
Levels of obligation
3 crop rotation
Job variation
Expanding to France
King John
Too much power
Arrest & punish
Even Kings aren't
above the law
The Norman Conquest
The Power of the Church
Key Terms
piety- a person's level of devotion to their religion
pontificate- papal term in office
Pope Gregory VII- Excommunicated Henry IV
Henry IV- Roman Emperor
Power of the Pope
Leo IX
Bishop/patriarch of Constantinople (Orthodox)
Leo IX
(Roman Catholic)
Clergy selection..who?
Gregory VII defied the emperor
The Crusades
Key Terms
Crusades- a series of religious wars launched by european christians in order to take Jerusalem away from the Muslims
Holy Land- Jerusalem and the area around it
Pope Urban II- Pope of western Europe, organized the crusades against the invading Turks in East Europe
Saladin- Muslim ruler who overthrew the Fatimids and took the title of Sultan
Richard the Lion-Hearted- English King who fought in the 3rd Crusade
battle of Manzikert
Council of Clermont- First Crusade
Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch and Tripoli
Venetian transport $$
attack Zara- property of Venice
Trade and Towns
Key Terms
Hanseatic League- group of northern german cities and towns that worked together to promote/protect trade
credit- promise of later payment--> in return for goods, customer would sign document promising payment
guilds- craftsmen organized in groups based on their craft/occupation, set prices and standards for their products *niche
apprentice- child who wanted to learn a craft
journeyman- apprentice who knew the basics- traveled around to learn from different masters
Trade Fair
Money- reintroduced
Population migration-
towns to cities
Art & Culture of the Middle Ages
Key Terms
Gothic- style of churches that were taller and lighter
flying buttress- type of support that supported church from outside
illumination- decorating written manuscript with pictures/designs
Hildegard of Bingen- nun, medieval poet
troubadours- singers who traveled from court to court performing and spreading news
Geoffrey Chaucer- "Canterbury Tales"
Dante Alighieri- "The Divine Comedy"
Thomas Aquinas- teacher at the university of Paris who brought back philosophy and scholastism
Scholasticism- both reason and faith are needed to understand the truth
increased literacy
Religious writings
Epics and Romances
truth via human reason
truth via God
Challenges of the Late Middle Ages
Key Terms
heresy- beliefs that opposed the official teachings of the church
Inquisitions- legal procedures that tried suspected heretics
friars- christians who vows of poverty and obedience, lived in cities to teach Christianity to prevent heresy
Hundred Years' War- king Edward (possible heir to france) attacked France because the throne was given to another cousin
Joan of Arc- peasant girl - led the French army to defeat the English & end the 100 year war
Wars of the Roses- war between the Lancasters and the Yorks
Henry VII- related to both sides ^^ ended war when he was crowned
Black Death- disease epidemic killing millions
heresy- threatened
social order of church
King Edward III
King Henry V
King Richard II
black plague-
changed the world
refer to graphic organizer
Goal 6- French Revolution, Industrial Revolution
French revolution and Industrial revolution
The French Revolution and Napoleon
The Industrial Revolution
Life in the Industrial Age
The Revolution Begins
Key Terms
Old Order- social/political structure that created inequalities in French society
King Louis XIV & Marie-Antoinette
First Estate- Roman Catholic Clergy, no taxes, 1%
Second Estate- Nobility, few taxes, 2%
Third Estate- 97%, made of the people, divided into sub-groups
bourgeoisie- top of 3rd estate- merchants, factory owners and professionals
sans culottes- workers of the 3rd estate.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen- made by National Assembly, gave all men equal rights, "liberty-equality-fraternity"
Classical Greece
artisans and workers- Sans Culottes
Tennis Court Oath constitution
Estates General--> National Assembly
the Bastille
Legislative Assembly-->
National Convention
The Republic
Key Terms
Maximilien Robespierre- radical leader, established reign of terror
guillotine- execution by blade dropping down on you
counterrevolution- revolution against government established by a revolution
Reign of Terror- series of trials/accusations (to prevent counterrevolution) to scare people out of rebellion
3 Factions
Mountains*Jacobin Club
The Plain
Jean-Paul Marat
Radical, sans culottes, violent
Committee of Public Safety
Revolutionary Tribunal
Vendée revolt
Directory 5
Napoleon's Europe
Key Terms
Napoleon Bonaparte-French military leader, overthrew Directory and became dictator/emperor of France
Admiral Horatio Nelson- commander of British Navy, defeated Napoleon in the Battle of the Nile (disrupt trade Egypt-->Britain)
coup d'etat- forcing a government to give power up
plebiscite- question for voters (*want to make France an Empire?*)
Continental System-blockade on Britain- Napoleon declared that French or Allied ships couldn't trade with Britain
nationalism- sense of unity as a people

Napoleonic wars- goal: conquer Europe
Peninsular War
Napoleonic Code
Napoleon's Fall
and Europe's Reaction
Key Terms
Czar Alexander I- Ruler of Russia when Napoleon invaded during Napoleonic wars- Russia torched fields so French couldn't have access to supplies
Hundred Days- Napoleon returned from Elba to France and took back the throne for 100 days
Duke of Wellington- led British troops in Battle of Waterloo
Prince Klemens von Metternich- Austria, supporter of monarchies
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand- filled in for Louis XVIII at the congress of Vienna
indemnity- payment to other countries for damages
reactionary- ideals that oppose progress and support old structures
Napoleon invades Russia
makes it to Moscow- high casualties
fire=no supplies+Russian winter=
Napoleon retreats
Exile to Elba
Battle of Waterloo
congress of Vienna
German Confederation
enlightenment ideals
Saint Helena
A New Kind of Revolution

Jethro Tull- seed drill
Richard Arkwright- spinning frame-->water frame
James Watt- improved steam engine
Robert Fulton- Clermont
cottage industry- craft occupation done at home
industrialization- process of changing to pow-driven machinery
Industrial revolution- era when the use of power driven machinery developed
enclosure movement- landowners would buy up lots of small farms and put them together to make large farms *previous farmers went to cities for work--joined industrial workforce
factors of production- Land, Labor & Capital- necessary for economic success

4 reasons for industrialization in Britain
-exploration and colonization (raw materials)
-seapower (import/export, take colonies)
-political stability
-Gov. Support (laws favoring business)
-Growth of private investment (research/development)
Eli Whitney- cotton gin
James Hargreaves-
spinning jenny
Edmund Cartwright
- power loom
factories- away from water
Slater US
and Workers
Labor Union- organizations representing workers' interests
strike- work stoppages
mass production- manufacturing large numbers of identical products
interchangeable parts- identical machine-made parts that can be put together to create identical products
assembly line- product moves from worker to work. each worker completes a new step of the process
cottage industries
3 levels of people in the system
-investors (capital)
The Luddite Movement
raised quality
of life--products
New Ideas in
a New Society
laissez-faire- "free to do", government should stay out of economics, market economy, business compete freely for trade
Adam Smith- advocate of laissez-faire, "Wealth of Nations"
Thomas Malthus- thought population would grow faster than food due to industry. Ideas justified low wages and bad conditions
entrepreneur-someone who starts a new business
Andrew Carnegie- steel industry
socialism- society/gov. should own property and control industry as opposed to individuals
Karl Marx- opposed capitalism- disrupts relationship b/w labor and profit, "Das Kapital", workers control gov.
communism- gov. owns most means of production and controls economy
standard of living- level of material comfort
gaps between rich and poor
Robert Owen
separate spheres
Britain India US
Advances in Technology
Michael Faraday- Dynamo, connection b/w magnetism and electricity
Thomas Edison- first efficient lightbulb & central power plant
Bessemer process- process to make metal stronger *used for locomotives, railroad tracks and steel bridges*
Henry Ford- made line of affordable cars via mass production
Wilbur & Oliver Wright- designed/flew first powered airplane
telegraph- sent messages instantly over wires
Samuel Morse- invented telegraph and morse code
Alexander Graham Bell- invented telephone
Gugliemo Marconi- invented radio
Joseph Swan
electricity helped factories by...electric power--no more steam engines and nearby water sources, & light =more production hours
Carl Benz- cars
model T
Scientific and Medical Achievements
Charles Darwin- "the origin of species" - evolution & natural selection
Marie and Pierre Curie- discovered polonium, radium & radioactivity
radioactivity- certain elements release energy when they breakdown
Albert Einstein- light=wave or particle, theory of relativity
Louis Pasteur- found connection b/w microbes and diseases
pasteurization- heating liquid/food to kill bacteria and prevent fementation
anesthetic- drug that reduces pain or knocks you out
Ivan Pavlov- russian psychologist- Used bell when feeding dog
Sigmund Freud- said human mind had subconscious thougts- used hypnotism and studied dreams
John Dalton- atomic theory
Crawford W. Long
Joseph Lister- antiseptic
Daily Life in the Late 1800s
urbanization- growth of proportion of people living in cities
romanticism- artistic/literary movement emphasizing emotions, reaction to Enlightenment rationalism
William Wordsworth- romantic poet
Beethoven-musician inspired by nature and human freedom
realism-reaction to romanticism, everyday life (good and bad)
Charles Dickens- realistic writer, "hard times"- struggles of poor
Leo Tolstoy- russian realist, "War and Peace"- exposed war as choatic and horrible
Henrik Ibsen- "A Doll's House"- unfair treatment of women in familes
impressionsism-capturing an impression of the scene, not just details
educated workforce
The Great War Begins
Triple Alliance-Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy
Triple Entente- Russia, France and Britain
Franz Ferdinand- Austrian Archduke, killed by Serbian-- led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia

Gavrilo Princip- serbian man who killed the Archduke
Central Powers- Germany and Austria-Hungary
Allied Powers- Britain, France, Russia and Serbia
Western Front- deadlocked region in Northern France
Serbian Nationalism
Russians support Serbs & declare war on Austria-Hungary-->Germany declares war on Russia & France
Germany attacks Belgium (nuetral)- Britain declares war on germany
Battle of the Frontiers
Battle of Marne=Trenches
A New Kind of War
trench warfare-fighting from trenches
total war- war require all of society's resources
propaganda- information designed to influence people's opinions
Battle of Verdun- German attack on French fortress of Verdun- to "bleed France White"
Gallipoli Campaign- Ottoman Empire joins central powers. OE has control of the Dardanelles (strait used to ship supplies to Russia). Allies land on Gallipoli Peninsula to take it back-failure
genocide- intentional destruction of a racial/political/cultural group
poison gas, tanks, & aircraft
Women in War- work on the home front (TW)
Italy- allied powers
British T.E. Lawrence to Arabian Peninsula- Arabs overthrow OE
Armenian Massacre
Revolution in Russia
Bolsheviks- Marxist group, led by Vladimir Lenin, wanted to overthrow the Czar and make Russia a socialist country
Grigory Rasputin- a corrupt holy man who advised Czarina Alexandra (ruler while czar Nicholas II led the military)
Marxism-Leninism- Bolshevism
Leon Trotsky- sent by Lenin to negotiate peace with the Central powers & quit the war--treaty=Russia lost land
New Economic Policy- allows some capitalism, Lenin's
response to economic crisis
Czar Nicholas II
Petrograd- Russia citizens protest lack of food/fuel--officers refuse to shoot them
Duma ordered to disband--defy
Nicholas II forced to abdicate
Duma sets up temporary gov. led by Aleksandr Kerensky
Vladimir Lenin
Russian Army Collapses
October Revolution
Bolshevik factory workers form Red Army- overthrow Kerensky's Gov.
Lenin establishes communist Gov.
Russians angry w/ treaty =White Army -->Civil War
Economy collapses
Soviet Union
The War Ends
Woodrow Wilson- US president, wanted nuetrality
U-boats- German submarines used to attack ships
Zimmermann Note- note from Germans trying to convince Mexico to attack the US--distraction from WWI
armistice- truce (after allies broke through Hindenburg Line)
Fourteen Points- Woodrow Wilson's idea of world peace
Treaty of Versailles- peace treaty- Germany had to pay for war damage, take full responsibility, return land, stop producing weapons and limit military size- not ratified by US
League of Nations- early version of UN, goal-keep peace, etc..
mandates- territories ruled by european powers (kind of like colonies)
Balfour Declaration- established Jewish state in palestine
U-Boats sink US ships
US complains- Germany stops
Germany starts again- uses Zimmermann note, hoping it will keep the US out of Europe
Angers public-->US joins Allies
Hindenburg Line
Georges Clemenceau
David Lloyd George
Vittorio Orlando
The Interwar Years
Unrest in Asia
and Africa
Jiang Jieshi- leader of the Guomindang- partners with CPC- eventually turned against them
Mao Zedong- leader of communist supporters, led the Long March
Long March- led by Mao Zedong- 6,000 miles through China looking for a safe place for Chinese Communists
Amritsar Massacre- British soldiers fired on Indian protesters
Mohandas Gandhii- Indian, led peaceful (ahimsa) protests against Britain
Kemal Atatürk- "Father of the Turks"- WWI hero, established Turkey with nonreligious government
May 4th Movement
Communist Party of China
Chinese Civil War-anticommunists (Guomindang) vs communists
Rowlatt Acts
Treaty of Sèvres-
OE gives up land
Reza Khan- Iran
The Great
Credit- person borrows money and arranges to pay it back
Black Tuesday- october 29, investors sold 16 million shares= stock market crash
Great Depression- economic downturn
FDR- US president, set up the New Deal
New Deal- established public works programs that gave jobs to unemployed and provided gov. money for welfare & relief programs
John Maynard Keynes- British economist who believed gov spending would lead to economic improvement. ex- gov demands more pens-->factories hire more workers-->workers increase spending. Money then comes back out
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act- signed by Hoover, taxed imported items to encourage Americans to by US made products. --> led to foreign countries tariffs on American goods, so international trade basically stopped
US industry
Nazis blamed Jews for economic problems in Germany
Japanese Imperialism
Manchurian Incident- japanese military leaders set out to conquer the Manchuria region of China, which was rich in NR like coal, hoping they could end economic reliance for NR
Manchuko- announced as the name of Manchuria- a new japanese state
Anti-Comintern Pact- Japan and Germany promised to work together to stop the spread of communism (later joined by Italy) and promised they would aid each other if they were attacked by the Soviet Union
Nanjing Massacre- Japan conquered the chinese city of Nanjing and then killed thousands of soldiers and civilians (100,000 women & kids)
Meiji Restoration
no natural resources-->
export for trade
weapon limits= increase
Fighting spirit of soldiers
2nd Sino-Japanese war
war with china
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Dictators in Europe
Benito Mussolini- National Fascist Party, March on Rome convinced Italian king to name him head of gov. --> Dictator
fascism- extreme nationalism, authoritative leader
totalitarianism-gov that wants to control all aspects of life
Joseph Stalin- Soviet Leader, totalitarianism, 5 year plan
Gulag- system of labor camps where Stalin sent peasants who resisted when he tried to take their land, the Great Purge (=Reign of Terror)
Adolf Hitler- "Mein Kampf", public speaker-germans=master race, rebuild Germany as an empire etc...Chancellor, Fuhrer-totalitarianism regime
Nazi Party- National Socialist Party
anti-Semitism- prejudice against Jews
Nuremburg Laws- created seperate legal status for Jews, revoked their citizenships, and civil rights.
Kristallnacht- night of broken glass- anti Jew riots
Italy attacks Ethiopia
collectivization (similar to
enclosure movement)
Famine in Ukraine
Weimar Republic
Axis Aggression
appeasement-giving in to aggressive demands in order to keep peace
Allies-Britain and France
Axis Powers- Germany, Italy and Japan
nonaggression pact- both sides promise not to attack each other (secretly negotiated b/w Stalin and Germany) later broken by Hitler
blitzkrieg- lightning war- close coordination b/w air and ground attacks. Used against Poland, Britain and the Soviet Union
Winston Churchill-opposed appeasement/Neville Chamberlain, became prime minister
Battle of Britain- Hitler plans to destroy british air force, fails due to british Radar. London Blitz- bombing on british ports
isolationism-desire to avoid involvement in the affairs of other nations
Hideki Tojo- led attack on Pearl Harbor
Lebensraum- living space
Allies afraid of another war-->let Germany violate the treaty
annexing Austria
Spanish civil war
Nationalists (Francisco Franco) V Republicans (SU)
9/1/39- Germany attacks Poland=Start of WWI
Germany takes France
US bans oil exports to Japan
The Allied Response
Erwin Rommel- german leader of Afrika Korps
Battle of El Alamein- Battle b/w British and Afrika Korp for control of North Africa
Dwight D. Eisenhower- General who led combined forces of British and US into north africa. Afrika Korps was surrounded and they surrendered, leaving all of North Africa with the Allies
Siege of Leningrad- Hitler's military blockade designed to force surrender
Battle of Stalingrad- Axis attack Stalingrad- Soviet victory due to Georgy Zhukov
Douglas MacArthur- general of US army in Philippines
Bataan Death March- Japanese marched prisoners from the Philippines
Battle of Midway- planned japanese attack on US midway island- US broke japanese codes and figured out when it was. US victory
Battle Guadalcanal- US v Japan while US was island hopping- gradually taking over Japanese islands getting closer and closer to Japan
kamikaze-japanese suicide flyers
USS Reuben James
total war= jobs for
women & blacks
US internment camps
Allies broke German Code system
Afrika Korps
Battle of Leyte
The Holocaust
deported-forced to leave a country
Final Solution- deliberate mass execution of Jews
ghetto-confined area in a city-- Jews forced to live there
concentration camps-labor camps to hold enemies of the state
Holocaust- mass murder of Jews
Germany outlaws emigration
Babi Yar- mass execution of Jews
Death camps-straight up killing left too much evidence- Auschwitz
War Refugee Board-help european Jews
The End of the War
Harry S Truman-US president, decided to drop atomic bomb
V-E Day- Soviets rushed Berlin from the East and the Allies from the West --> Berlin surrenders & Hitler kills himself
Battle of Iwo Jima- US island-hops to Iwo Jima so they can be closer to Japan and perform less-risky bombing raids. US victory
Battle of Okinawa- US hopped to Okinawa (to be closer to Japan) US won
D-Day- Allies invasion of France (german territory), germans surrendered Paris
Hirohito- Emperor of Japan, surrendered after 2nd atomic bomb
V-J Day- Japan surrenders after 2 atomic bombs
Yalta conference-held to reach agreement on what do with postwar europe
United Nations-international cooperation, made at Yalta C.
Potsdam Conference-held in germany, tension grew b/w US & SU
George Marshall and Dwight Eisenhower- led D-Day
Battle of the Bulge- Axis counterattack to D-Day
Japanese-fight till the death
Atomic Bomb
Atlantic Charter
International Politics, 21st Century Issues- Goal 8 24-27%
Europe and North America
Beginnings of
the Cold War
Nuremberg Trials
Cold War
iron curtain
Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan
Berlin Airlift
Warsaw Pact
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