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AZTEC CIVILIZATION WORLD HISTORY
Transcript of AZTEC CIVILIZATION WORLD HISTORY
Who are the Aztec people?
The Aztecs were native American's that dominated northern Mexico with their military and political power during the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th century.
The Aztec empire was made up of a series of “city states” called altepetl. Every Altepetl had a separate supreme leader, a supreme judge and a administrator. Supreme leaders were known as tlatoani and the administrator was known as cihuacoatl. Each Tlatoani was known as the emperor of their city state.
War was a massive part of the Aztec civilization, not only because the Aztec people could concur land but also because they could collect captives to feed to their gods.
Aztec religious & mythological view
Education in Aztec was important and was compulsory for everyone to go to regardless of age, gender or race.
It took them over 200 years to find Tenochtitlan. In 1325 they started Tenochtitlan, a city that is now Mexico city. The Aztec built their city in the middle of the lake.
1521 - 1563
1519 - 1520
The Aztec decided to choose a king, he was Acamapichtli (Handful of reeds); they decided to call him tlatoani, which means chief speaker. Acamapichtli came up with the idea of picking the next leader by election.
Itzcoatl, the 4th ruler of the Aztec people conquers the Tepanec domination and forms the triple alliance made up of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan.
1519 - 1520
Spaniard Herman Cortes lands in Mexico and take Moctezuma the 9th king and ruler at the time as prisoner.
many Aztec people are killed in the temple by the spanish troops; a new king cuitlahuac is crown. The Spanish flees.
smallpox sweeps through Tenochtitlan and kills many Aztec people including cuitlahuac.
1521 - 1563
The Cortes attack Tenochtitlan by water; the Aztec are defected and cuauhtemoc (Tlatoani) is hung. Tenochtitlan becomes the spanish colony of New Spain.
Aztec left Aztlan to seek a new homeland.
Aztecs finally find their home land in Tenochtitlan, which is now known as Mexico city.
1397 acamapichtli dies
were taught to cook, take care of the family
taught crafts and ways to run the economic
taught different trades
taught fighitng skills and leadership skills
Children were split into two base on class:
taught to be priest, doctors, teachers and leaders of the society.
children where taught more about the Aztec culture, trade, religion and skills
Inventions & technology
The floating garden
Universal school for all
The Aztec calender
calender had 18 months with 20 days
360 days for a year then added 5 scarifies day called Nemotemi
calender was invented 103 years before the Georgian calender.
It was a massive carving, 3 feet thick, almost 12 feet across, and weighing almost 25 tons.
The Aztec believed in lots of God; according to the Aztec it took the Gods five try to create the world.
Tezcatlipoca - turned into a jagaur and destroy the world
Nanauatl (Tonatuih) - the sun
Ehecatl - sacrifice the other Gods
Quetzalcoatl - created humans
Huitzilopochtli - was the God of war
Tecciztecatl - God of the moon
The Aztec people believed that in order for the sun to move on it own it needed human sacrifice to help chase away the darkness. The human sacrifices would arise in the after world and help Huitzilopochtli fight the darkness.
Most of the Aztec war were fought to get prisoners of war that would be sacrifice.
Every 52 years the Aztecs perform a new fire ceremony; during this time the commoners would destroyed their house utensils, quench all fire and recieved a new fire at the top of the Mt. Huixachtlan, lit on the chest of a sacrificed person by the high priests.
They are four main social class:
high ranking warriors, lords, high ranking priests
Aztecs only went to war to collect prisoners to scarify to their gods; In battles called "war of the flower".
Only men were needed for the sacrifice and soldiers that did get sacrificed were thought of as gods. It was a true honor to die this way.
Captures would be treated as a part of the Aztec family until the time came when the priest needed to cut out the captures heart. This made sure the sun would continue to rise and that the crops would continue to grow and flourish.
The Aztec were always at war.
The Aztec would decide on who they wanted to conquer and then send spies who would dress up and speak like the people they were sent to spy on. they would also ask the king of the other empire to think about joining his empire and trade with them.
If the city refuse to join the Aztec empire, the aztec would send messages to their other cities to gather armies and supply to prepare for war.
when they arrive at the enemy city they would, the Eagle knights attacked at dawn, Then the jaguar knights encircled their enemy. The Aztecs tried to wound or captured their enemies rather than kill them. When the Aztecs decided that the battle was won. Messengers were sent to their enemy city to surrender.
The Aztec empire stretched from northern Mexico to Guatemala; Thirty-eight different provinces in 800,000 square miles of land ruling over 10million subject. It capital Tenochtitlan with over 200,000 people.
A treaty were signed between the Aztecs and it new captured city. The Aztec new city would be ruled by Aztec noble
The War of flower were fought between the triple alliance, when each side decide they had enough people they war would end. This was a ceremonial tournament.
Pipiltin (upper class)
The Ruling class Top positions in government, army and priesthood Emperor was #1 Expected to conduct themselves exemplary way.
Had more chance of being the King.
Punished more severely if they were disobedient.
priest didn't get married
farmers, market sellers, artisted
Commoners Middle Class
(Macehualtin) Could improve status by gaining recognition in the military, becoming a priest, merchant, artisans or trader.
Warriors were seen as equals to the Nobility
were like the working class of today.
Peasant worked on the land
cleaned the streets, maintained the temples.
sometimes lived of land of the nobles.
Slaves were the lowest rank in Aztec
Nobody was born a slave, you could become a slave by selling yourself for debt.
slaves could buy their freedom
slaves owned no land.
slavery was not racially based.
The fall of the empire
Gender roles and jobs
Tenochtitlan was an island city five miles square, and surrounded by Lake Texcoco. Canals filled with canoes were used for streets. The city had three great causeways or roads above the lake. The Causeways led in and out of the city. Bridges could be raised to prevent enemies from going into the city.
The Spanish conquered the Aztecs in 1521. This was during the Renaissance in Europe. The Spanish conquistadors (conquerors) were lead by Hernan Cortes.
The Aztecs economy was based on agriculture and trade. The economy depended on extensive trade of necessary and luxury items.
Some of the items that were traded were:
brightly colored woven cloth
salt harvested from the lake bed.
A new emperor could be chosen was by a high council of at least four nobles. These four high council nobles also had to be related to the previous ruler.
A new emperor was normally always a brother or son of the deceased ruler and had to be a noble who was over the age of thirty. The new emperor also had to be well educated and had to be on the elite calmecac schools, he had to have be an experienced warrior and he had to have outstanding military skills.
Despite the fact that the emperor had absolute power and was believed by his citizens to be a god he had four noble advisers who helped him make decisions and one senior noble who was elected by the nobility.
How a king was chosen
Montezuma (Moctezuma) was the Aztec emperor at the time.
The were able to conquer the Aztecs easily because they allied with Aztec enemies. They also brought diseases that the Aztecs weren't immune to.
who were the triple alliance?
Why did the Aztec went to war? (the flower war)
The Aztec traded for other luxury items, such as:
tropical bird feathers and jaguar skins (used for ceremonial garments)
cacao beans (for chocolate).
Cacao beans were treated as a precious substance by the Aztecs. It was their currency.
The Aztec did not used the wheel, they transported their goods by canoe and slaves carrying items on their back.
what did the Aztec believed needed to happen in order for the sun to rise the next day?
who conquered the Aztec?
When boys were born, their umbilical cords were buried on an army ground to symbolize their potential contribution to society as a warrior.
When Girls were born, their umbilical cords were buried near the hearth and she was given weaving implements and female clothing representing her role as a woman in the household
Women dominated the household and the markets.
women could also be teachers and priestesses Warfare gave increased power and privilege to men Comparison Incan and Aztec girls were weavers.
Men were expected to serve in the military.
Women in Aztec society had more power and could run businesses out of their homes, unlike their counterparts in Inca society.
Both Incan and Aztec couples could divorce but Incan society only allowed it if they woman was childless.
Death was punishment for Adultery in both societies
What was the Aztec currency?
What was the capital of the Aztec Empire called?
What were the Aztec suppose to look for in order for them to know they found the promise land?
small pox played a part in the conquering of the Aztec empire. The Aztec people were not immune to small pox but the european were.