**Ideas: Methods of producing H2**

Electrolysis of H2O

Steam reforming

Partial oxidation

Thermolysis of H2O

Plasma reforming

Coal conversion to syngas

Photo biological water splitting

Nuclear fission

The Sulphur-Iodine Cycle

Enzymatic H2 generation

Biocatalysed electrolysis

Biomimickery

Aqueous phase reforming (APR)

Particle / antiparticle annihilation

Mining in space

**Hydrogen Economy**

Screening Ideas

**The Hydrogen Economy**

**A renewable source of energy for the nation’s secure electricity production**

Our challenge, run a train in one day

Scale up

Ideas

The Selection Matrix

The Sulphur–Iodine (SI) Cycle

Sulphur

The Sulphur–Iodine (SI) Cycle

Process Flow Diagram

Transporting the Electricity

Calculation

Mass of a train + passengers = 492 tonnes

Town Hall to McArthur = 49.11 km

1 hour for one trip

11 times a day

Kinetic energy = 2.1 x 10^12 Joules

= 774 000 L Hydrogen

(30MPa) for one day

Calculation

Fuelcell Propulsion Institute report :

Average power consumption

40 – 100 kW

Shunt locomotive used had mass of 130 tonnes

Total energy for one trip =

400 kWh

Calculation

Total energy for one trip = 400 kWh

Energy density of H2 = 0.75 kWh / L (30 MPa)

533 Litres of Hydrogen

157 000 Litres of Hydrogen ( 1 atm )

1 727 000 Litres of Hydrogen for one day

Total energy required in 1 day

Mass balance

Mass of water = 2543 kg

Using 3 equations of energy balance

Total energy in one day =

3276 kWh

Photovoltaic Cells

Average sunlight radiation : 600 W/ m^2

PV cells with 20% efficiency

PV cells : 3900 m^2 (1 day)

63m

63m

Photovoltaic Cells

Steam turbine has 33% efficiency

Mass of water = 7627 kg

PV cells : 11 700 m^2

108m

108m

Scale up

There are 107 trains on the Sydney rail network

Mass of water = 816 tonnes

PV cells : 1,210,000 m^2

1100m

1100m

Cost Analysis

Upgrade existing power stations ~ $2 million dollars

SI-Cycle :

PV cells

Iodine

Pt catalyst

HIx a very corrosive media

Reaction chamber

Heat exchanger

Pipe networks

Safety Analysis

The Advantages and challenges of SI Cycle

The Advantages of SI Cycle

Green source and green product(H2O, O2,H2)

Cycle : self-contained cycle

Efficiencies: 40%~50% laboratory scale

Engineering feasibility

The Challenges of SI Cycle

What happens when the sun doesn't shine.....

Electrical transmission power losses ( huge distances)

Starting up costs are high

33% efficiencies of conventional power plants

Laboratory scale up to industrial scale

Findings

The Hydrogen Economy

The Sydney Electric Rail Network

The Hydrogen Economy

The Model

- Chemical Process Design (CPD)

The Hydrogen Economy

We will examine:

- Running a single train for one day

- Will it be feasible to scale up the operation for the entire network...?

Thank you !

Iodine

The SI-cycle - water source

The SI-Cycle - heat source

Sunlight capture

- via photo-voltaic cells

Transporting the Electricity

From the Tropics to Sydney …..

- The domino effect

- Power losses through transmission

The Hydrogen Economy

The Sydney Electric Rail Network

107 trains require:

Hydrogen :

554 million litres per day

45,600 kg per day

Water:

816,000 kg per day

Electricity:

1.1 million kWh per day