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Hydrogen Economy

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by

youheng yu

on 9 September 2014

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Transcript of Hydrogen Economy

Ideas: Methods of producing H2
Electrolysis of H2O
Steam reforming
Partial oxidation
Thermolysis of H2O
Plasma reforming
Coal conversion to syngas
Photo biological water splitting
Nuclear fission
The Sulphur-Iodine Cycle

Enzymatic H2 generation
Biocatalysed electrolysis
Biomimickery
Aqueous phase reforming (APR)
Particle / antiparticle annihilation
Mining in space

Hydrogen Economy

Screening Ideas
The Hydrogen Economy
A renewable source of energy for the nation’s secure electricity production



Our challenge, run a train in one day



Scale up



Ideas
The Selection Matrix
The Sulphur–Iodine (SI) Cycle
Sulphur
The Sulphur–Iodine (SI) Cycle
Process Flow Diagram
Transporting the Electricity
Calculation
Mass of a train + passengers = 492 tonnes



Town Hall to McArthur = 49.11 km



1 hour for one trip



11 times a day



Kinetic energy = 2.1 x 10^12 Joules

= 774 000 L Hydrogen

(30MPa) for one day


Calculation
Fuelcell Propulsion Institute report :

Average power consumption
40 – 100 kW

Shunt locomotive used had mass of 130 tonnes

Total energy for one trip =
400 kWh


Calculation
Total energy for one trip = 400 kWh
Energy density of H2 = 0.75 kWh / L (30 MPa)
533 Litres of Hydrogen
157 000 Litres of Hydrogen ( 1 atm )
1 727 000 Litres of Hydrogen for one day
Total energy required in 1 day
Mass balance

Mass of water = 2543 kg

Using 3 equations of energy balance

Total energy in one day =
3276 kWh

Photovoltaic Cells
Average sunlight radiation : 600 W/ m^2

PV cells with 20% efficiency

PV cells : 3900 m^2 (1 day)


63m
63m
Photovoltaic Cells
Steam turbine has 33% efficiency

Mass of water = 7627 kg

PV cells : 11 700 m^2
108m
108m
Scale up
There are 107 trains on the Sydney rail network



Mass of water = 816 tonnes

PV cells : 1,210,000 m^2
1100m
1100m
Cost Analysis
Upgrade existing power stations ~ $2 million dollars

SI-Cycle :
PV cells
Iodine
Pt catalyst
HIx a very corrosive media
Reaction chamber
Heat exchanger
Pipe networks

Safety Analysis
The Advantages and challenges of SI Cycle
The Advantages of SI Cycle
Green source and green product(H2O, O2,H2)

Cycle : self-contained cycle

Efficiencies: 40%~50% laboratory scale

Engineering feasibility

The Challenges of SI Cycle
What happens when the sun doesn't shine.....

Electrical transmission power losses ( huge distances)

Starting up costs are high

33% efficiencies of conventional power plants

Laboratory scale up to industrial scale

Findings
The Hydrogen Economy
The Sydney Electric Rail Network

The Hydrogen Economy
The Model
- Chemical Process Design (CPD)

The Hydrogen Economy
We will examine:

- Running a single train for one day

- Will it be feasible to scale up the operation for the entire network...?

Thank you !
Iodine
The SI-cycle - water source
The SI-Cycle - heat source
Sunlight capture
- via photo-voltaic cells
Transporting the Electricity
From the Tropics to Sydney …..

- The domino effect

- Power losses through transmission

The Hydrogen Economy
The Sydney Electric Rail Network

107 trains require:

Hydrogen :
554 million litres per day
45,600 kg per day
Water:
816,000 kg per day

Electricity:
1.1 million kWh per day
Full transcript