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To Kill a Mockingbird Chapters 11- 15
Transcript of To Kill a Mockingbird Chapters 11- 15
Scout- Narrator of the novel, she is a 6 year old tomboy girl, and is the daughter of Atticus Finch and is the sister of Jem.
Aunt Alexandra- She is the sister of Atticus, she lives at Finch Landing, and is very concered about Scout's feminine side.
Jem- Brother of Scout Finch, he is very protective of Scout and he is her best friend.
Atticus- Father of Scout and Jem, he is a widower and a Maycomb Attorney
Calpurnia- She is the Finch's housekeeper, few of the "Negroes" that can read and write and teaches Scout how to write.
This chapter takes place between the Finch home in Maycomb, Alabama, and the African M.E Church right outside of town
This chapter isn't the brightest. Jem enters his middle school years and is going through outburst of anger and long moments of silence. He then orders Scout to act more like a a girl.
Scout then recieves the news that Dill isn't coming to Maycomb for the summer. Jem and Scout then find out that their father will be out of town for the next two weeks for a special case.
Calpurnia is in charge of the two kids while Atticus is away. She does not trust them enough to let them go to church on their own, she then decides to take them to her church. The party of three arrive at the church just outside of town with open arms all accept for one lady who questions Calpurnia about bringing two white children into their church.
While at church the congregation collects money for Helen, Tom Robinson wife. After the collection, Reverend discovers that they do not have enough money to get the Robinson family though the week, so he closes the church doors and makes everyone pay until they've reached ten dollars. Jem and Scout doante their dimes given to them by Atticus. Scout realizes Tom Robinson is her fathers client and asks Calpurnia what he's done. Calpurnia explains to the children that he was accused of rape by the Ewells. Scout doesn't know what rape is, and questions why anyone would believe the Ewells.
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The setting of this chapter is in Maycomb Alabama in the house of Mrs. Dubose
Scout is in second grade and wants to explore more of the town. She thinks she is too big to be worried about the Radley's. Going downtown means passing Mrs. Dubose's house. They pass her house and she screams at Jem and Scout about their father defending Tom Robinson. One day on their way home from shopping, she screams at them and Jem gets mad and takes Scouts boton and destroys her flowers. Atticus tells Jem to apologize. Mrs. Dubose tells Jem to read to her everyday. After a month Mrs. Dubose dies because she was addicted to morphine.
Jean Louise (Scout)- 6 year old tomboy. She loves to fight and is very smart. She has a crush on her summer neighbor, Dill.
Jeremy Finch(Jem)- He is 12 years old. He is the oldest son of Atticus. He is a pre-teen who gets mad very quickly.
Atticus Finch- He is the father of Jem and Scout. He is the lawyer of the city. The city doesn't like him because he is defending a black man.
Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose- An old cranky woman. She screams at Scout and Jem about their father. She turns out to be addicted to morphine
Nelle Harper Lee was born on April 28, 1926, to Amasa Coleman Lee and Frances Cunningham Finch Lee. Harper Lee grew up in the small southwestern Alabama town of Monroeville. Her father, a former newspaper editor and proprietor, was a lawyer who also served on the state legislature (1926-38). As a child, Lee was a tomboy and a precocious reader, and she enjoyed the friendship of her schoolmate and neighbor, the young Truman Capote, who provided the basis of the character of Dill in her novel To Kill a Mockingbird.
Lee was only five years old in when, in April 1931 in the small Alabama town of Scottsboro, the first trials began with regard to the purported rapes of two white women by nine young black men. The defendants, who were nearly lynched before being brought to court, were not provided with the services of a lawyer until the first day of trial. Despite medical testimony that the women had not been raped, the all-white jury found the men guilty of the crime and sentenced all but the youngest, a twelve-year-old boy, to death. Six years of subsequent trials saw most of these convictions repealed and all but one of the men freed or paroled. The Scottsboro case left a deep impression on the young Lee, who would use it later as the rough basis for the events in To Kill a Mockingbird.
Lee studied first at Huntingdon College in Montgomery, Alabama (1944-45), and then pursued a law degree at the University of Alabama (1945-49), spending one year abroad at Oxford University, England. She worked as a reservation clerk for Eastern Airlines in New York City until the late 1950s, when she resolved to devote herself to writing. Lee lived a frugal lifestyle, traveling between her cold-water-only apartment in New York to her family home in Alabama to care for her ailing father. In addition, she worked in Holcombe, Kansas, as a research assistant for Truman Capote's novel In Cold Blood in 1959. Ever since the first days of their childhood friendship, Capote and Lee remained close friends.
Lee published her first and only novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, in 1960 after a two-year period of revising and rewriting under the guidance of her editor, Tay Hohoff, of the J. B. Lippincott Company. To Kill a Mockingbird won the 1961 Pulitzer Prize despite mixed critical reviews. The novel was highly popular, selling more than fifteen million copies. Though in composing the novel she delved into her own experiences as a child in Monroeville, Lee intended that the book impart the sense of any small town in the Deep South, as well as the universal characteristics of human beings. The book was made into a successful movie in 1962, starring Gregory Peck as Atticus.
Jean Louise "Scout" Finch- The narrator and protagonist of the story. Scout lives with her father, Atticus, her brother, "Jem" Finch, and their black cook, Calpurnia, in Maycomb. She is intelligent and a tomboy.
Jeremy Atticus "Jem" Finch- Scout's brother. Jem is in his adolescence and his ideals are shaken badly by the evil injustice he perceives during the trial of Tom Robinson.
Atticus Finch- Scout and Jem's father, a lawyer in Maycomb. He descended from an old local family. When he agrees to defend Tom Robinson he exposes himself and his family to the anger of the white community.
Charles Baker "Dill" Harris- Jem and Scout's summer neighbor and friend.
Aunt Alexandra- Atticus' sister, a strong-willed woman with a fierce devotion to her family
Mr. Underwood- The publisher of Maycomb's newspaper. Mr. Underwood respects Atticus and proves his ally
Heck Tate- The sheriff of Maycomb and a major witness at Tom Robinson's trial. Heck is a decent man who tries to protect the innocent from danger.
Mr. Walter Cunningham- A poor farmer and part of the mob that seeks to lynch Tom, displays his human goodness when Scout's politeness compels him to disperse the men at the jail.
Outside the Maycomb jail in Alabama
A week after Dill's arrival, a group of men led by the sheriff, Heck Tate, comes to Atticus' house in the evening. As his trial is getting closer, Tom Robinson is to be moved to Maycomb jail, and concerns about the possibility of a lynch mob have arisen. Later, Jem tells Scout that Alexandra and Atticus have been arguing about the trial. In that evening, Atticus takes the car into town. At about ten o'clock, Jem, Scout, and Dill sneak out of the house and follow Atticus to the town center. They see Atticus sitting in front of the Maycomb jail, reading a newspaper
Four cars drive into Maycomb and park near the jail. A group of men get out, and order Atticus to move away from the jailhouse door. Atticus refuses, and Scout suddenly comes racing out of her hiding place next door, only to realize that this group of men differs from the group that came to their house the previous night. Jem and Dill follow her, and Atticus orders Jem to go home, but Jem refuses. Scout looks around the group and recognizes Mr. Cunningham. She starts talking to him about his legal entailments and his son, and asks him to tell his son "hey". Mr.Cunningham squats down and tells Scouts that he will tell his son "hey" for her, and then tells his companions to clear out. When they were gone, Mr.Underwood speaks from a nearby window where he is positioned with a shotgun. Atticus and Mr. Cunningham talk for a while, and then Atticus takes the children home.
symbol(s): Four black cars
In this chapter we find Mr. Finch in a sort of problem. While he sits outside of the Maycomb jail, he is approached by four black cars. These four black cars can represent intimidation. These men think Tom Robinson is guilty of raping a white woman. These men maybe wanted to intimidate Atticus and try to prove their "point".
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The setting in this chapter is at the Finch's house
In this chapter Aunt Alexandra came to visit saying that she is staying for a while because Jem and Scout need a femenine influence. Alexandra is welcomed by various people in the neighborhood. Some ladies in the neighborhood have coffee and cake with her. She is very happy and proud of the Finch family. At the end of this chapter she decides to lecture them in the history of their family, but it ends with Scout crying.
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The reason why Aunt Alexandra moved in was to influence Jem and Scout in a feminine way. Also, she was worried about Scout and her feminine insticts.
symbol(s): Dills return and a baby
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symbol(s): two dimes
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Scout- A six year old tomboy, who lives with her father and older brother, Jem. She is devastated due to Dill's absence during Summer. She is quite educated, already knowing how to read and write. She also beats up who- ever gets in her way, but tries to have some tolerance.
Jem- The oldest child of Atticus Finch. He is twelve years old and starting middle school. He goes through some mood swings since he is going into his adoloscence.
Calpurnia- The African- American housekeeper of the Finch home. She is one of the few black people who know how to read and write. She is dedicated to taking care of the Finch Family of three.
Reverend Skyes- The preacher of the church. He forces the church to donate money to help the Robinson family
Church Members- These black folk accept the Finch children into their church and seem friendly.
The most important thing in this chapter is the way the two white childrem put a side racial differences in order to help a family that is being shunned due to an accusation. Scout and Jem donated the money out of their pockets to a family everyone they know hates.
Dill- He is the closest friend of Jem and Scout.
Scout- Atticus' daughter who is an impulsive girl, she keeps rushing into fights and is more emotional than her brother, Jem.
Jem- He is the son of Atticus and the brother of Scout. He is deeply motivated to follow Atticus' footsteps.
Aunt Alexandra- She is Atticus' sister, who comes to live with Atticus and the children.
Atticus- He is the father of Jem and Scout. He is the city attorney.
Calpurnia- She is the black housekeeper who has looked over the family since Mrs. Finch pasted away.
Aunt Rachel- She is Dill's Aunt, she is 23 years old and was born in Macon, Georgia. She sells clothed goods at Rachel's Linens. She is a close friend to Alexandra.
This chapter talks about how Jem and Scout had not heard about the Finch family from Aunt Alexandra, but from the town. On a Saturday, Jem was already annoyed by Scout, but he let her come. A skinny man said, "they can go loose and rape up the countryside for all them who run this country care". That's when Scout remembered she had forgot to ask Atticus, what rape was.
Scout eventually asks Atticus what rape was, he defines it as " carnal knowledge of a female by force and without consent". Scout still doesn't quite understand, and asks Atticus why Calpurnia didn't tell her what it meant, which lead to the story about Calpurnia taking the kids to her church. Aunt Alexandra wasn't pleased to find out and tells Scout she can't visit Calpurnia. Scout answers back to her Aunt and then hides in bathroom. She then comes out to hear her aunt and father arguing about someone. Scout thinks it's her and that she's going to be forced to wear girly things. This "someone" turns out to be Calpurnia, Alexandra wants to fire her , but Atticus doesn't want to hear it.
Jem tells Scout to leave their aunt and father alone. Scout doesn't like Jem telling her what to do, they eventually start to fight until Atticus breaks them up sending them both to their rooms. While getting ready for bed, Scout felt something under her. She ran to Jem telling him what has happened. Jem sweeps under Scouts bed thinking there's a snake only to find Dill. Dill says he's hungry. Scout brings him food and tells Scout and Jem about his abusive new father and about his journey back to Maycomb. Jem tells Atticus. Dill begs Atticus not to tell his Aunt Rachel. Atticus says he must tell her, but will allow him to stay the night. Dill and Scout lay together and talk about their families. Dill suggests that they should get a baby.
Before they both drifted to sleep, Scout asked Dill why Boo Radley has never run off. Dill says maybe he has no where to run to.
The house of the Finch Family in Maycomb, Alabama.
Dill coming back symbolizes his love, not only for Scout, but for the rest of the Finch family and Maycomb. He returns knowing he'll be safe. Dill suggests they should have a baby which can represent unity between the two young children who say they will get married. Due to them being young, they may think getting a child is a magnet that will bring them together as a family.
When Jem would read to Mrs. Dubose her fits would slowly go away, they would keep her calm. The books represent a possible cure to her addiction, because she wouldn't think about the drug.