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World Geography

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Alex Ramirez

on 25 March 2013

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Transcript of World Geography

Budapest World Geography STAAR List Unit 1 -Absolute location: exact location on earth
-Relative location: a place around a sertain location
-Hemisphere: each half of the planet
-Equator: line that divides the planet [North and South]
-Prime Meridian: line that divides the planet [East and West]
-Latitude: lines that run parallel to the equator, useed to locate places N and S.
-Longitude: lines that go around the earth
-Topographical Map: reference map that represents natural and man-made features on the earth
-Global Positioning System: series of satellites that rely information to earth.
-Geographic Information Systems: a digital map that allows geographers to analyze aspects of specific places to solve problems.
-Scale: ratio between a unit of length on the map and unit of distance on earth.
-Physical Map: a map that shows landforms and bodies of water in a specific area.
-Political Map: a map that shows man-made features on earth's surface.
-Thematic Map: maps that focus on specific types of information.
-Formal Regions: region defined by a limited number oof related characteristics.
-Functional Regions: region organized around a set of interactions and connections between places.
-Perceptual Regions- A region in which people perceive, or see, the characteristics of the region in the same way. -core- the solid metalic center of the earth and is made up of iron.
-mantle- a soft layer of molten rock about 1,800 miles thick.
-magma- molten rock created when the mantle melts the underside of the crust.
-crust- the thin layer of rock at the earth's surface.
-lithosphere- the solid rock portion of the earth's surface.
-hydrosphere- the waters comprising the earth's surface, including oceans, seas rivers, lakes, and vapor in the atmosphere.
-atmosphere- the layers of gases immediately surrounding the earth.
-biosphere- all parts of earth where plants and animals live, including other types of atmosphere.
-hydrologic cycle- the continuous circulation of water among the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth.
-drainage basin- an area drained by a major river and its tributeis
-water table- the level at which rock is saturated.
-landforms- a naturally formed feature on the surface of the earth.
-delta- a fan like landform made of deposited sediment, left by a river that slows as it enters the ocean.
-glacier- a large, long-lasting massof ice that moves because of gravity.
-tectonic plates/forces- an enormus moving shelf that forms the earth's crust.
-divergent boundary- plates that move apart or spread.
-convergant boundry- plates collide with each other, causing one plate to either dive under or ride up over the other plate
-transform boundary-when tectonic plates slide past one another
-fault-a fracture in the earth’s crust where plates move past each other
-seismograph-measures the size of the waves created by an earthquake
-epicenter-the point directly above the focus(where the earthquake begins) on the earth’s surface where.
-Richter Scale- Uses information collected by seismographs to determine the relative strength of an earthquake
-tsunami- a giant wave in the ocean caused by an earthquake
-Ring of Fire- A zone around the rim of the Pacific Ocean where the majority of active volcanoes are found
-mechanical weathering- a natural process that breaks rock into smaller pieces
-chemical weathering- a process that changes rock into a new substance through interactions among elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock pgs. 3-4 -erosion- the result of weathering on matter, created by the action of wind, water, ice, or gravity-glaciations- the changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers -humus-organic material in soil
-soil- building-the process where organic material becomes fertile soil
-ecosystem-an interdependent community of plants and animals
-biomes- regional ecosystems. Biomes are divided into forest, grassland, desert, and tundra
-solstice -either of two times of year when the sun’s rays shine directly overhead at noon at the farthest points north or south, and that mark the beginning of summer and winter; in Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice is the longest day and the winter solstice the shortest
-equinox-each of the two days in a year on which day and night are equal in length; marks the beginning of spring and autumn
-Tropic of Cancer- The farthest point north the sun’s rays shine overhead at noon
-Tropic of Capricorn-The farthest point south the sun’s rays shine overhead at noon
-weather-the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and time
-climate -particular location as observed over time -precipitation- falling water droplets in te form of rain, sleet, snow, or half
-wind systems-help distribute the sun’s heat from one part of the world to another
-currents-impact the temperature of area and the amount of precipitation a region receives-hurricane- a storm that forms over warm, tropical ocean waters
-typhoon- a tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the western Pacific
-tornado- a powerful funnel-shaped column of spiraling air
-blizzard- a heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 35 miles per hour and reduced visibility of less than one-quarter mile
-drought- a long period without rain or with very minimal rainfall
-climate region-a region that experiences particular weather conditions over many years. Temperature and precipitation are the two most significant factors. Topography, elevation, and location on a continent also impact a region’s climate
-tropical-refers to regions with little variation in temperature. Typically tropical regions receive large of amounts of rain. pgs. 5-6 -tundra- the flat treeless lands forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean; the climate region of the Arctic Ocean
-permafrost-permanently frozen ground-culture-the total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of a group
-ethnic minority-an individual who identifies with the minority population of a region. Members of ethnic minorities are often underrepresented in political power, and in some cases, persecuted for their ethnicity
-religious minority -an individual who belongs to a minority religion in a region. India is largely a Hindu nation yet it also has a sizeable Muslim and Sikh populations.
-multicultural society-a population that contains several culture groups. The groups tend to preserve at least some of their culture characteristics such as religion, language and food preference.
-innovation- taking existing elements of society and creating something new to meet a need. Some innovations have changed the course of history such as the domestication of horses or the invention of the printing press. Other innovations, such as electric cars, address the demands of the marketplace.
-diffusion- the spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies-cultural hearth- the heartland or place of origin of a major culture; a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to other cultures pg. 7 cultural hearth - the heartland or place of origin of a major culture; a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to other
culturesacculturation - the cultural change that occurs when individuals in a society accept or adopt an innovationcustom - practice routinely followed by a group of peoplenationalism - a belief that people or ethnic groups should have their own government or homeland.patriotism - devotion to one’s country. The idea that you should be loyal to and support your country’s laws and have pride in your countrycultural landscapes- the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various groupsmonotheistic- a belief in the existence of only one godChristianity - Christianity is a monotheistic religion which is also the world’s largest religion by membership. Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus. The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian denomination but others exist such as the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant faiths. Islam - Islam is the world’s second largest religion. Members of the Islamic religion are called Muslims who follow the teachings the prophet Muhammad. Islam is often divided into two groups-Shi’ites and Sunnis-though other groups exist. Judaism - A religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god. According to Jewish teaching, Abraham and God have a convenant in which Jews agree to worship only one God, and God agrees to protect his chosen people.Sikhism -A religion based in northern India. Sikhism combines the Hindu concept of reincarnation with Islamic belief in monotheism. Worldwide there are 30 million Sikhs.polytheistic - a belief in the existence in may godsBuddhism - A religion founded in the sixth century and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge, especially self-knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal. Buddhism splintered from Hinduism as a reaction to the strict caste system.Hinduism - One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back 4000 year, and originating in the Indus River Valley. Hinduism is unique among the world’s religions in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its originsanimistic- The belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforts on Earthbirthrate - the number of live births per total population, often expressed per thousand populationfertility rate - the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her country
mortality rate - the number of deaths per thousandinfant mortality - the number of deaths among infants under age one as measured per thousand live births
population pyramids - graphic devices that show gender and age distribution of a population
life expectancy - An amount in years indicating how long, on average, a resident of a particular place is expected to live
literacy rate - An amount, usually a percentage, of a given population who possess the ability to read and write
population density - the average number of people who live in a measurable area
push and pull factors - push factors push people from their homeland, while pull factors attract people to a new
migration - the movement of peoples within a country or region
connectivity - the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
democracy - a type of government in which citizens hold political power either directly or through elected representatives
dictatorship- a type of government in which an individual or group holds complete political power
monarchy - a type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies
republic - a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule on their behalf
theocracy - a state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided. Vatican City and the country of Iran are theocracies pg. 8-10 totalitarian - a political system where the state controls all political and economic power. Media is censored by the state and few individual rights exist. The Soviet Union under Josef Stalin and Nazi Germany are examples of totalitarian governments.metropolitan area - a functional area including a city and its surrounding suburbs and exurbs, linked economicallysuburbs - a political unit or community touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the cityurbanization - the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that resultsustainable development - economic and or population growth that does not impact the environment in a lasting negative mannerinfrastructure - the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systemsFree Enterprise - An economic system in which private individuals own most of the resources, technology, and businesses, and can operate them for profit with little control from the governmentSocialist Economic System - An economic system where social, or public ownership of resources exists. Economic programs are intended to do the most good for the greatest amount of people.Communist Economic System - A system in which the government holds nearly all political power and the means of productionTraditional Economies - A system where goods and services are traded without exchanging money. This exchange of goods is often called bartering.Primary - Economic activities that involve gathering raw materials such as timber for immediate use or to use in making of a final productSecondary - Economic activities that involve adding value to materials by changing their form. Manufacturing automobiles is an exampleTertiary - Economic activities that involve providing business or professional services. Salespeople, teachers, or doctors are examplesQuaternary - Economic activities that provide information, management, and research services by highly-trained personsgross domestic per capita - the average amount of money earned by each person in a political unitstandard of living - a measure of quality of life in a location. Wealth, happiness, health, education are all factors that are used to compare levels of development which establishes a standard of livingless developed - a country, or region, that has not attained a specified level of development. Less developed countries have low literacy and inadequate educational programs. The per capita GDP is low and health services are poor. Much of the population in a less developed country lives in poverty.newly developed - a country, or region, that has recently attained a specified level of development. Newly developed countries have experienced rapid economic growth in the last 40 years. Often, the discovery and distribution of natural goods provides the spark that initiates the successful economy. South Korea, Singapore and Brazil are considered newly developed countries pgs 11-12 -more developed - a country that has attained the highest level of development due to wealth, income, economic and social opportunities. More developed countries are usually leaders in technology and scientific innovation. The United States, Canada, Japan and many western European countries are grouped as more developed

-subsistence agriculture- an activity where a family produces only enough food to be self-sufficient. If an abundant harvest occurs, the extra crops might be traded for goods and services they cannot produce themselves.

-commercial agriculture- an activity where crops are grown food the purpose of sale. Typically, commercial farms are larger and use more modern labor saving devices than subsistence farming

-cottage industries- an economic activity performed at home. Labor is usually limited to one craftsman and another family member. Often the cottage industry is the lone provider of a service in a village.

-commercial industries- an economic activity performed in a factory where division of labor exists. Commercial activities usually employ many people who are expected to complete a variety of tasks toward the production of a single item. For example, a pencil factory might employ wood workers, painters, quality control managers and office personnel
-manufacturing- an economic activity that utilizes skilled labor and machines to produce goods for sale. Usually manufacturing refers to the industrial production of goods from raw materials.

-service industries- an economic activity where a service is provided rather than a good. Service workers often perform tasks that most people cannot easily do themselves. Auto mechanics, plumbers, doctors and firemen are considered part of the service industry.

-globalization- The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales.

-outsourcing- when production is moved from one location to another usually to address the rising cost of labor. Outsourcing is often used to describe the loss of American jobs to foreign countries such as China; however outsourcing can refer to the movement of factories from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt.

-free trade zones- areas where imported goods are not subject to the same regulations and import taxes (custom duties and tariffs) that might exist elsewhere. Free trade zones are intended to make the transportation of goods across national boundaries easier less expensive

-export- a product or good that is sold from one country to another. Exports are favorable to the selling, or exporting, country and a drain on the economy of the receiving country. For example, Americans buy coffee from Brazil. Brazilian farmers benefit as American dollars leave the country

-import- a product that is purchased from one country by another. A country imports foreign goods because they cannot produce the item at the price or quality the market demands. For example, the United States imports petroleum because the demand for oil exceeds the supply

-NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement. Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries

-New World- The popular name given to the Americas by European explorers and colonists.

-Columbian Exchange- exchange of plants, animals and disease between the New and Old Worlds following the arrival of the Europeans. Previous to the Columbian Exchange certain plants and animals were found in either the New World or Old World. For example, horses were unknown in the Americas while vanilla, potatoes and tobacco were found only in the Americas.

-colony- an outpost in a foreign land. Some colonies are established for economic purposes to further trade while others are settlements for emigrants

-Louisiana Purchase- The territory under U.S. control nearly doubled under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase. Decades of western migration soon followed as the lure of open land drew settlers from around the world.

-frontier- the open lands beyond the last populated settlements. In American History, the frontier is associated with the West pgs 13-15 -Dust Bowl- A climatic disaster in the Great Plains region caused by poor farming techniques and continued drought. Many people were “pushed” away from Oklahoma and “pulled” toward California

-arable land- Arable land is land fit for agricultural production. The amount of arable land within the borders of a country can increase with expanded irrigation projects or decreases with desertification

-continental divide- the line of the highest points in North America that marks the separation between rivers flowing eastward and westward

-prairie- the temperate grasslands of North America; “prairie” is the French word for meadow

-Tornado Alley- A region in the Midwest United States where most of the countries tornadoes occur

-Rust Belt- The economically depressed region surrounding the Great Lakes. The Rust Belt once contained the industrial heartland of the United States, but foreign competition and rising labor costs closed many of the region’s factories

-Sun Belt- The economically expanding region of the Southern United States. Low labor costs and mild winters have led many businesses to relocate there.

-Native Americans /Peoples- The inhabitants of the Americas at the time when the Europeans first arrived to the New World

-Baby Boomers- Babies born after the Second World War but before the mid-1960’s. This generation is called baby boomers because the high birthrates occurring at this time.

-Inuit- Native peoples of Alaska and Northern Canada. Often Inuits are called Eskimos

-Metis- A person born from a mixed union. Typically, the term is used to describe Canadians whose parentage is European (usually French) and Amerindian.

-bilingualism- where two or more languages are spoken.

-Aztec People- Ancient peoples of Central Mexico. The Aztec Empire ended with the arrival of the Spanish

-mestizo- A person born from a mixed union.Typically, the term refers to describe people whose parentage is European (usually Spanish) and Amerindian

-Mayan People- Ancient peoples of the Yucatan Peninsula, northern Central America. The Mayan Empire is considered a cultural hearth

-Taino- A group of peoples who inhabited the Caribbean Islands at the time of the European conquest. The introduction of Old World diseases-especially smallpox-devasted the Taino populations

-Inca People- Ancient peoples of western South America. The Inca Empire is considered a cultural hearth.

-cerrado- a savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall that is suitable for farming. The cerrado savannas are located in the interior of Brazil

-pampas- a savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall that is suitable for farming. The pampas are located in northern Argentina and Uruguay

-rain forest- dense forests found in tropical regions. Rain forests receive large amounts of rain and are typically hot all year. The largest rain forest in the world is the Amazon rain forest

-isthmus- a narrow strip of land connecting to larger landmasses usually with water on either side. The Panama Canal was constructed on the isthmus of Panama

-El Nino- A weather pattern created by the warming of the waters off the coast of South America, which pushes warm water and heavy rains toward the Americas and produces drought conditions in Australia and Asia

-slash- and- burn- a way of clearing fields for planting by cutting trees, brush, and grasses and burning them

-terraced farming- an ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides or mountain slopes, using step-like horizontal fields cut into the slopes pgs 15-17 remittances-Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries.

migratory labo- workers who move with the availability or opportunity of employment.

informal economy-conomic activities that take place outside official channels, without benefits or protection for workers

Renaissance-A period of European history when there was a renewed interest in learning and the arts. The new ideas of the Renaissance began in the Italian city-state of Florence and spread north into the rest of Europe

Bubonic Plague- The Bubonic Plague , or Black Death was a pandemic outbreak occurring in the 15th century. The plague is estimated to have killed 30–60 percent of Europe's population The plague is often used as an example of the consequences of globalization as the plague may have traveled west from Asia carried by traders along the Silk Road

pandemics - a disease affecting a large population over a wide geographic area

genocide- the deliberate extermination of a population based on some common characteristic

Industrial Revolution-The shift, beginning in England during the 18th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine

peninsula- a landmass nearly surrounded by water but connected to the mainland

fjords- a long, narrow deep inlet of the sea between steep slopes

North Atlantic Drift- a current of warm water from the tropics that flows near Europe’s west coast; the current impacts western Europe’s weather

Arctic Circle- Tundra climate region where the land is often in a state of permafrost.

terpen- high earthen platforms that, along with dikes, are part of a seaworks project

polder- land that is reclaimed from the sea or other body of water by diking and drainage

European Union- The European Union, or EU, is a political and economic alliance among 27 countries of Europe.

euro- The common currency used by the members of the eurozone

eurozone- A monetary union among 17 of the European Union’s 27 members. Germany, France and Italy are members of the EU and the eurozone. The United Kingdom is a member of the European Union but not the eurozone.

tariff- taxes placed on imported goods

czar- the emperor of Russia prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the rise of the Soviet Union in 1922

USSR- The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or Soviet Union, formed in 1922 by the Communists and officially dissolved in 1991

Cold War- the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II, called “cold” because it never escalated into open warfare North Atlantic Treaty Organization- The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO, is a military alliance formed after to Second World War to address the growing threat of Soviet expansion

Eurasia- the combined continent of Europe and Asia

Transcaucasia- A region that consists of the republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia; located between the Caucasus Mountains and the borders of Turkey and Iran

Siberia- A region of central and eastern Russia stretching from the Ural mountains to the Pacific Ocean, known for

steppe- the term used for the temperate grassland region in the Northern Hemisphere

command economy- a type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production.

privatization- the selling of government-owned business to private citizens

mosque- an Islamic place of worship where Muslims pray facing toward the holy city of Mecca

Zionism- A movement that began in the 19th century to create and support a Jewish homeland in Palestine

Palestine Liberation Organization /P.L.O.- A group formed in the 1960’s to regain the Arab land in Israel for Palestinian Arabs

Taliban- A strict Muslim group in Afghanistan that has imposed rigid rules on society, including prescribed clothing styles for both men and women, restrictions on the appearance of women in public places, and regulations on television, music, and videos.
stateless nation

aquifer- an underground layer of rock that stores water

oasis- a place where water from an aquifer has reached the surface

desertification- an expansion of dry conditions to moist areas that are next to deserts

Mesopotamia- A region in Southwest Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which was the location of some of the earliest civilizations in the world; part of the cultural hearth known as the Fertile Crescent

Irrigation- An agricultural method that provides water to farmland through man-made improvements

desalinization- the removal of salt from ocean water

crude oil- petroleum that has not been processed

refinery- a place where crude oil is converted into useful products

OPEC- The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC, is an economic alliance that regulates the production and price of much of the world’s supply of petroleum. The country of Saudi Arabia is a member of OPEC

Guest workers- a largely unskilled laborer, often an immigrant from South and East Asia, brought in to the oil-booming countries to fill job openings that the region’s native peoples find culturally or economically unacceptable pgs 18-19 pgs 20-21 Olduvai Gorge - A site of fossil beds in northern Tanzania, containing the most continuous known record of humanity over the past 2 million years, including fossils from 65 hominids
Bantu migrations- The movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 B.C. to around A.D. 1000
postcolonial- Postcolonial refers to the time after colonial rule. It can described the arts, as in postcolonial literature, or political affairs, as in postcolonial government.
apartheid- a policy of complete separation of the races, instituted by the white minority government of South Africa
acquired immune deficiency syndrome , or AIDS- a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV
savanna- the term for the flat, grassy, mostly treeless plains in the tropical grassland region
plateau- a wide, generally level, area of elevated land
basins- a depression in the earth's surface
rift valleys- a long, thin valley created by the moving apart of the continental plates, present in East Africa, stretching over 4,000 miles from Jordan in Southwest Asia to Mozambique in Southern Africa

commodity- an agricultural or mining product that can be sold
cash crop - a crop grown for direct sale, and not for use in a region, such as coffee, tea, and sugar in Africa
famine- a severe shortage of food over a long period of time leading to starvation
diversify - (in agriculture) to increase the variety of products in a country’s economy; to promote manufacturing and other industries in order to achieve growth and stability
Indus Valley Civilization- The largest of the world’s first civilizations in what is now Pakistan; this was a highly developed urban civilization, lasting from 2500 B.C. to about 1500 B.C
Aryan Invasion- An Indo-European people who, about 1500 B.C. E., began to migrate into the Indian subcontinent
Mughal Empire- The Muslim empire established by the early 1500’s over much of India, which brought with it new customs that sometimes conflicted with those of native Hindus
British Raj- The period of British rule in India, which lasted for nearly 200 years, from 1857 to 1947
Partition of British India- Following independence, the division of the population of post-colonial India. The Muslims of West and East Pakistan chose to separate from India where most of the people belong to the Hindu religion.
subcontinent- a landmass that is like a continent, only smaller, such as South Asia, which is called the Indian subcontinent
alluvial plain- land that is rich farmland, composed of clay, silt, sand, or gravel deposited by running water
archipelago- a set of closely grouped islands
monsoon- a seasonal wind, especially in South Asia
cyclone- a violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain; the most extreme weather pattern of South Asia
Kashmir- A region of northern India and Pakistan over which several destructive wars have been fought
land reform- the process of breaking up large landholdings to attain a more balanced land distribution among farmers
Green Revolution- An agricultural program launched by scientists in te 1960’s to develop higher-yielding grain varieties and improve food production by incorporating new farming techniques
Textile industry- An Economic activity that is primarily concerned with the production of cloth and cloth products .
nonviolent resistance- a movement that uses all means of protest except violence
Bollywood- Bollywood is a popular term for the motion picture industry based in Mumbai, India. Bollywood movies are mostly filmed with actors using the Hindi language which makes them very popular with India’s 250 million Hindi speakers.
caste system- the Aryan system of social classes in India and one of the cornerstones of Hinduism in which each person is born into a caste and can only move into a different caste through reincarnation
Ramadan- An Islamic practice of month-long fasting from sunup to sundown pgs. 22-24 Sherpas- A person of Tibetan ancestry in Nepal who serves as the traditional mountain guide of the Mount Everest region
dynasty- a series of rulers from the same family
The Travels of Marco Polo- The Travels of Marco Polo is the popular name for a work of literature that describes the adventures of Marco Polo’s journey to the court of Kubla Khan in the 13th century.
People’s Republic of China- The communist government formed in China following the defeat of the Japanese in World War II and the American-supported Nationalist Army. The People’s Republic of China was commonly known in as "Communist China" or "Red China" during the Cold War; today it’s known as China
Pearl Harbor- An air-sea battle between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the combined American Forces stationed on the island of Oahu, Hawai . Pearl Harbor is the name of both the American navy base and the geographic location where the Pacific Fleet was anchored.
Hiroshima- the name of the Japanese city that was targeted for first American atomic bomb attack
Korean War- A three- year period of open warfare between the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea following the defeat of Japan to end the Second World War.
United Nations- An international peacekeeping organization founded in 1945 to provide security to the nations of the world
typhoon- a tropical storm ,like a hurricane, that occurs in the western Pacific
Pacific Rim- An economic and social region including the countries surrounding the Pacific Ocean, extending clockwise from New Zealand in the western Pacific to Chile in the eastern Pacific and including the west coast of the United States
landlocked- having no outlet to the sea
hydroelectric power- Electricity generated by hydropower through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy
economic tiger- a country with rapid economic growth due to cheap labor, high technology, and aggressive exports
nuclear power- Energy produced by nuclear reactors
export economy- an economy that is highly dependent on exports.
multinational- a corporation that engages in business world wide
Shintoism- Shintoism is a religion of 4 million observers who live primarily in Japan. Shintoism is similar to Buddhism focusing particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Taoism- Taoism, or Daoism, is a philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese thinker Laozi,who taught that people should be guided by a universal force called the Dao. Taoism was suppressed in the first decades of the People's Republic of China, but continued to be practiced in Taiwan and other Chinese communities in Southeast Asia.
one-child policy- A policy limiting families to one child in an effort to reduce the overall population.
Han People- The Han people are the largest ethnic group in the world comprising over 20% of the world’s total population. The Han People are the majority ethnic group in the People’s Republic of China, the country of Taiwan and the city-state of Singapore. pgs. 25-26 -Mandarin- Mandarin is the official language of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. More than 1 billion people speak Mandarin or one of its regional dialects.
-samurai- a professional soldier in Japan who served the interests of landowners and clan chiefs; samurai influence began to fade with introduction of modern warfare techniques in the 19th century
-Bikini atoll- The isolated reef, located in he Marshall Islands of the central Pacific, that was the site of U.S. nuclear bomb tests, consequently contaminating te atoll with high levels of radiation and driving it inhabitants away
-Khmer Empire- A powerful empire that lasted roughly from the 9th to the 15th centuries in what is now Cambodia
-Indochina- A French colony comprised of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam; it won independence from France in 1954
-Vietnam War- The military conflict resulting from American involvement in South Vietnam to prevent it takeover by Communist North Vietnam
-high islands- Pacific islands created by volcanoes
-low islands- Pacific islands made up of coral reefs
-Great Barrier Reef- A 1,250 mile chain of more than 2,500 reefs and islands along Australia’s northeast coast, containing some 400 species of coral
-outback- The dry, unpopulated inland region of Australia
=polar desert- A cold-weather region where the average temperature does not exceed 10 degrees Fahrenheit during the warmest month and that receives less than 10 inches precipitation annually.
-Krakatoa- A massive volcanic explosion that occurred off the coasts of the islands of Java and Sumatra in 1883.
-ASEAN- Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, an alliance that promotes economic growth and peace in the region
-subsistence activities- an activity in which a family produces only the food, clothing, and shelter they themselves need
-poverty rate- The poverty rate, or poverty line, is a measure of the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a given region
-Aboriginal people- People who migrated to Australia from Asia at least 40,000 years ago; the original settlers of the land
-Maori- The first settlers of New Zealand who had migrated from Polynesia more than 1,000 years ago
-Stolen Generation- In Australia, what Aboriginal people today call the 100,000 mixed-raced children who were taken by the government and given to white families to promote assimilation pgs. 27-31
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