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Long and Short Term Causes of the French Revolution
Transcript of Long and Short Term Causes of the French Revolution
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
SHORT TERM CAUSES
wide spread crop failure. To purchase bread, the peasant would have to spend 88% of their daily income!
Coldest Winter in French History!
LONG TERM CAUSES
1% of the total population (100,000). Rich land owners 6% of all land in France owned by clergy. The upper clergy, Bishops, Cardinals, etc, are unpopular with the people. They seem to have more interest in wealth, rather than spirituality.
Exempt from paying all taxes, but could collect them.
10% of one's annual income.
50 million livres annually!
The vast majority of clergy were not Bishops or Cardinals. Most were common priests who delt with and understood the plight of the French peasantry.
Nobles of the Robe
Nobles of the Sword
Louis XIV's wars
Louis XV's 7 year war
Poor fiscal management
Borrowing heavily! Heavy Intrest payments!
By 1788, 50% of GDP goes to debt
6% to Versailles
19 % Public Works
Long and Short Term Causes
Arranged marriage to Louis at age 14 to secure alliance between Austria & France. Louis was 16 at the time.
mother was Empress Maria Theresa of Austria
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Friendly, pious, practical joker, slow, shy around girls and indecisive. All poor qualities for Absolute Rule
He had "
" a condition that makes erections difficult and painful! He was unable to have sex with Marie until her brother suggested a doctor who could fix him. They needed to produce an heir!
Grandson of Louis XV. Had 2 younger brothers Comte de Artois and Comte de Province
Though not intentionally "evil", both Marie & Louis were not suited for Absolute Rule and were extremelly out of touch with the people of France.
REALLY OUT OF TOUCH!
HAVE and HAVE NOT!
He loved to wrestle with his man srevant "Gemme"
Hobbies included: Clock making, lock smithing, eating and hunting!
At the "Handing Over Ceremony" she lost all that was Austrian, including: Her name, clothes, friends and even her dog 'Mops'!
A room, usually painted green, where people would gather and discuss: humanism, justice, enlightenment and politics!
Women played a large role in the salon. They would send out invitations, organize guest lists, set the agenda and the menu for the evening.
The philosophes (Voltaire, Montesquie, Locke, Diderot and Rousseau) fought against despotism, feudalism and clericalism. They were inspired by the advances made during the scientific revolution
Nobility with pedigree! The 'Blue Bloods'. They have tradition, money and history, but are declining in number.
"New Money" They have been made nobility, by the king. Selling titles to wealthy merchants, etc. They are not welcomed by the Robes, but they are growing in number and have sympathies with the 3rd Estate.
The Affair of the Necklace
A scheme hatched Madame La Motte to further undermine the Queen's reputation. A trial ensues. The Queen looses and people are furious with the Queen's frivolous spending.
Unloved, Marie finds comfort in spending! New dresses, outlandish hairdos, gambling and expensive balls all serve to negatively impact the "Teen Queen's" reputation
The 'Pouf' hairstyle popularized by Marie Antoinette
Le Petit Trianon
The Hameau de la Reine (The Queen's Hamlet)
is a political pamphlet or book which slanders a public figure. The number of pornographic libelles that involved Marie proliferated into the revolutionary era.
the fall of the Teen Queen
1.5 million livres!
The Revolution Begins!
Events quickly spiral out of control. The real question is, "
when does the revolution actually begin?
American War of Independence 1776
Liberal ideas such as 'freedom for all men', 'a republic is superior to a monarchy' and ' the need to take up arms against tyranny' are discussed and entertained.
France funds the American War of Independence.
Approx 400,000 Nobles. Own 30% of the land. The economic base of the aristocracy was in decline, tradition prevented it from tapping into the new commercial sources of wealth. In order to keep up, forced to reaffirm feudal dues, obligations.
98% of the population
. (24-25 million) Merchants doctors, lawyers, teachers (Bourgeosie) are also part of this class. They are the 'New Rich' aristocracy wannabes! The sale of titles & offices declines, upward mobility is slow. They both disdain and ape aristocratic pretentions.
85% of the 3rd Estate are Peasants. Much of their income is taxed (70-80%) with nothing to show for it.
They have no political voice
TYPES OF TAXES
Taille = Land tax
Poll Tax = Head tax
Octroi = Village tax
Gabelle = Salt
Corvee = 3 days free work
Arrested after the Revolution and charged with treason as Austria declares war on France. Also chraged with 'incest' with son - Louis-Charles.
Executed Oct 16th 1793
1789 Minister of Finance Colonne begs Louis to tax nobles and Church.
When the nobles refuse, Louis fires Colonne. France is on the brink of REVOLUTION!!!
Louis is executed January 21 1793
The Archbishop of Strasbourg had an annual salry of 400,000 livres, while most priests received 700 livres annually!
They earned 100 million livres annually from this alone!
The nobles were exempt from paying taxes, military service and had feudal rights to hunting and fishing.
VENAL OFFICES - positions that could be bought, or sold that carried hereditary titles.